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1

api

, ind. [ts.], before vowels ap', or apy > app',
see app'eva below; enclitically mostly pi (or with elision
p'); emphatic particle, according to Grr. (Rūp C 87,11-15
[cf. Pāṇ I 4,96 and Am-k III 3,248] ≠ Sadd 884,13-20
≠ Pay fol. gr v. 1 foll.; Abh 1183) used to express:
(I) sambhāvanā: 'api dibbesu kāmesu ratiṁ so
nâdhigacchati', Dhp 187; 'Meruñ ca pi vinivijjhitvā
1api— (II) apekkhā: 'ayam pi dhammo aniyato', Vin III
192,2**; — (III) samuccaya: 'iti pi arahaṁ'. Vism
198,8; 'antam pi antaguṇam pi ādāya', MN III 186,7;
cf. Ud-a 278,15 (api-saddo sampiṇdanattho); Ps I
250,16 (upari-atthaṁ upādāya sampiṇḍanatthe pi-
kāro); —(IV) garahā: 'api 'mhākaṁ panditaka', cf.
DN I 107,18 (Sadd-ns); — (V) pañha: 'api bhante
bhikkhaṁ labhittha', cf. Sp I 37,16 (api kiñci labhit-
tha) = Mil 9,3 and Vin II 11,8; — to this Abh adds
(VI) saṁvaraṇa (see 2api): 'api-dhānaṁ', Abh-sūci;
and (VII) āsaṁsā (cf. çañkā in Am-k I. c. and see below
A (1) (a, 2 & 3), of which Abh-sūci gives no example;
select exx. of the use of api and pi from the texts:
A. api (1) prothetic: (a) in the beginning of the
sentence:
(1) even; Dhp 187 (~ dibbesu kāmesu);
Thī 383 (~ dūragatā); Pv 780 (~ yojanāni gacchāma
. . . aladdhā [ye]va nivattāma); Ja I 136,19* (~ atara-
mānānaṁ phalâsāva samijjhati; apīti nipātamattaṁ,
Ct.) = VI 16,14*; Ja V 493,23' (~ gāthā suṇitvāna
dhamme me ramati mano; = app-eva . .. rameyya(I),
Ct.); VI 508,7* (~ 'ssā hoti appatto ucchiṭṭham api
bhuñjituṁ); 508,25* (~ sāgarapariyantaṁ . . . ma-
hiṁ); 572,23* (~ kibbisakārikaṁ . .. moceyyaṁ); with
foll. negation: Vin III 148,30* (ap'ahaṁte na jānāmi);
Ja I 311,5 (~ aggiṁ pavisissāmi na c'attana . . . jahi-
ta-visaṁ paccāvamissāmi, = 'rather . . . than'); Ja
VI 38,31 (~ [v. l. te pi, cf. tam pi, ib. 38,28-30] koci
nīharituṁ nâsakkhi); MN III 261,19 (concessive: ~ me
dīgharaṭtaṁ Satthā payirupāsito ... na ca me evarūpī
dhammī kathā sntapubbā); — (2) expectative = per-
haps, may be
(with pot. (or indie. ?)); Sn 447 (ap'ettha
mudu vindema, ~ assādanā siyā) = SN I 124,6*; SN I
209,30* (~ muccema pisāca-yoniyā; Spk; cf. ib, 25*
api [ca] . . . paṭipajjema); Ja III 272,25* (~ passeyya
mātaraṁ; — api nāma mātaraṁ passeyyaṁ, Ct.);
V 24,26* (ācikkha me taṁ, ~ sakkuṇemu anujānituṁ
āgamanāya pañhe; = api nāma, Ct.); VI 555,8*
(~ passesi no lahuṁ; = api nāma . . . lahuṁ passey-
yāsi, Ct.); 562,15* (~ sotthi ito siyā) = 583,2* ( =
api ca nāma, Ct); 563,14* (~ Siviputte passesi); —
(3) optative (or deliberative) (with pot.; cf. (2));
Vin III 25,17 (ap'ahaṁ Buddhaṁ paccakkheyyaṁ;
cf. yan nūnâhaṁ Buddhaṁ p°, ib. 24,ai); Ja V 330,12*
(~ puttassa no siyā); 343,2* (~ no anumaññesi,
~ no jīvitaṁ dade); Vibh 393,1 foll.; 395 30 . . . 396,17
(ap'āhaṁ siyaṁ; = api nāmâhaṁ bhaveyyaṁ,
Vibh-a); — (4) adversative = but (then, if so) [like
api ca]; Vin I 274,35 (saccaṁ ... ap'ahaṁ marissā-
mi); Ja VI 584,20* (atthi no jīvikā ... ~ no kisāni
maṁsāni); — (5) affirmative = surely, indeed; for,
because; yes
(in answer); Vin III 215,23 (~ me 'yya
evaṁ hoti, answer to a question with saccaṁ kira);
218,8 (~ n[o]' ayya evaṁ hoti); MN III 210,19
(ap'ahaih puggalaṁ addasaṁ) ≠ 211,5; Ja I 498,2:1*
(~ nū hanukā santā; = api no hanukā sanlā, api
amhākaṁ hanukā kilantā, Ct.; quoted Dhp-a III
423,4*); — (6) interrogativelat. nam, nonne, cf. api
nu (kho) below; often followed by a word of address: Vin
II 11,8 (api bhante piṇḍo lab'bhati); IV 245,24 (ap'
ayyāhi . . . laddhaṁ); ja II 126,19* (~ kiñci labhā-
mase; quoted Dhp-a I 145,7*); Vin I 16,23 (~ bhante
... passeyya, pot 3 sg.); Ja II 150,5* (~Vīraka passesi;
quoted Dhp-a I 144,7*); SN I 115,10 (~ samana bali-
vadde addasa); DN II 130,19 (~ bhante . . . addasa);
II 162,16 (~ āvuso . . . jānāsi); Th 1196 (do.); Ja III
401,9* (~ brāhmaṇa jānāsi; = api nāma, Ct.); Dhp-a
III 258,3 (~ samaṇa piṇḍaṁ alattha), cf. Sadd 884,18;
— (7) permissive (with imper.); Th 988 (~ mud-
dhani tiṭṭhatu); Ja IV 286,11* (~ bhīruke, ~ jīvi-
tukāmike kimpurisi! gaccha Himavantaṁ, see ib.
6*); — (8) often repeated in comp.s with eka, etc.,
app-ekacca, app-ekadā below; — — (b) beginning
a smaller unity within a clause
= 'even'; Vin II
158,36 (adeyyo gahapati ārāmo, ~ koṭisantharena);
Sn 563 (ko disvā na-ppasīdeyya, ~ kaṇhâbhijā-
tiko) ≠ Maitr-vyāk v. 101; Dhp 196 (na . . . ~
kenaci) = Ap 133,5; Th 499 = 550 (~ vitta-pari-
kkhayā); Thī 213 (~ bālo paṇḍito assa); Ja VI 507,3*
(te manussaṁ migaṁ vâpi api-m-[C^-p-]āsannam
āgataṁ); [Ja VI 560,30*-32* (api ratte, í. e. apiratte,
q. v.)]; Mil 118,26 (yaṁ kiñci mahiyā dānaṁ vijjati,
~ asadisadānaṁ paramaṁ); Ras 2,23* (dassāmi aṅ-
gaṁ, ~ jīvitañ ca); 4,20* (pahāya rajjaṁ ~ ñāti-
saṁghaṁ); with foll. pleonastic pi or pi ca: Mil 126,28
(~ cakkavattikule pi); 284,1 (~ yojanasahassehi
pi); Ja III 199,3* (~ rajjam pi); Ja III 103,17* (~ at-
tasamam pi ca, Cks); cf. api câpi and api ce pi below;
— — (c) combined with other particles: api kho pana
(a) or api ca kho pana (β), but (then, only, at all
events, though, on the other hand
); ( a ) Ja II 165,19;
249,19 (v. l. api ca . . .); 384,11 (do.); IV 52,14; 87,26
(v. l. api ca . . .); 105,16 (do.); 255,4 (do.); 377,12 (do.);
(β) Ja I 253,23; VI 549,14'; Mil 64,3; — api ca
(mainly after a neg. clause), yet, but (also) (cf. A 1 a (4));
Sn p. 102,5 (~ m'ettha puggala-vemattatā viditā; =
api ca mayā ettha aññatitthiyānaṁ parivāse pug-
gala-nānattaṁ viditaṁ) = DN I 176,20 (= api ca
me ettha, Sv); Vin I 298,19 (api câhaṁ asatiyā
paviṭṭho); SN II 128,21 (~ vinipātāya saṁvattati)
≠ MN III 117,15; MN I 387,28 (~ te ahaṁ vyākaris-
sāmi); Ps I 268,10 . . . 13 (~ . . . pi); II 155,8 (do.); Sv
I 31,9; Sadd 82,2; 16; 83,28, etc.; Dhp-a II 140,18
(na tāva .. . ~); Mil 25,9,11 (~ . . . ~kho); 39,7 (~ o-
bhāsana-lakkhaṇā pi paññā); 47,27 (kiñcâpi . . . ~
tato eva so aggi nibbatto); 75,14 (~ mātusadiso
putto hoti); 164,7 (~ . . . iminā pi pariyāyena);
287,8 (~ . . . parivatteyya, na tv-eva . . . paṭinivat-
teya, though . . . yet not); DN I 96,15 (~ ... yadi,
but if); with imper, (cf. above (1, a, 7); Sn p. 32,8 =
48,17 — SN I 214,15 (~ tvaṁ āvuso puccha yad-
ākaṁkhasi); AN IV 213,7 (~ . . . suṇāhi); Dhp-a II
74,24 (~ thokaṁ suṇāhi); also api ... ca: Ja IV
351,26* (api vāri ca sandati); — api ca kho (cf. Sadd
902,33), yet, however, nevertheless; but (further, besides,
on the contrary
); Sn p.48,9 (~ te samphasso pāpako);
It 89,15; AN III 208,29; Ps I 161,35~(~ ... pi); Mil
20,30; 25,11; 239,15; 240,21; — api ca kho pana, see
api kho pana above;api câpi . . . (cf. b above), Ja
IV 384,21*; — api ce, even if (with pot. or indie); Sn
589 (~ vassasataṁ jīve); Th 129 (~ hoti tevijjo; Ct.:
'apī' ti sambhāvane nipāto, 'ce' ti parikappane); Ja II
422,26* = III 32,10* (~ pattam ādāya . . . paribbaje,
esā va jīvikā seyyā, Cks here seyyo); Ja IV 217,8* (~
maññati poso 'ñāti, mitto'... ti); do. api ce pi, Ja II
29,15* (~ dubbalo mitto mittadhammesu tiṭṭhati; Ct.:
eko pi-saddo anuggahattho, eko sambhāvanattho); —
api nāma, perhaps, may be (differently Abh 1191; cf.
above
(1, a, 2)); with pot.: Ja II 200,23; III 273,8' =
'api'); 495,19*; V 25,2'(= 'api'); 234,33' (= 'app-eva
nāma'); VI 555,25'(= 'api'); 583,6'(= do.;Ee Cks api
ca nāma); — api nu, interrogative; (a) with pot.: Thī
398 (~ sotthi siyā (cf. above 1, a, 6)); DN I 3,9 (after
ce with pot.); 97,11 foll.; II 353,10 (after seyyathā
pi with pot.); MN I 128,28; SN II 128,14; AN V 84,16
foll.; Mil 286,28; — (β) with indicative: DN I 102,10;
III 3,12 (~ fāhaṁ evaṁ avacaṁ) = 4,14 (cf. api
nūna below); MN I 132,26 (api n'ayaṁ . . . usmīkato
pi; Ps) = 258,26; SN I 162,8 (preceded by tam kiṁ
maññasi, cf. ib. 4); AN III 208,20 (~ tumhehi diṭ-
thaṁ vā sutaṁ vā, preceded by taṁ kiṁ mañña-
tha); Ja II 415,24; V 343,1* (api n'ayaih . . . sukli-
udrayo; = api nu ayaṁ, Ct); Mil 293,25 foll;
api nu kho, interrogative; (a) with pot.: DN
II 67,20 (Sv); Mil 286,16 (+ yadi with pot.); —
(β) with indicative: SN I 162,4; AN V 83,17; Dhp-a
I 163,9; Mil 119,26; — api nu ca, do.(?); Vin II
303,18 (~ mayaṁ garu-nissayaṁ gaṇhāma, shall we
not, or: then we shall
); — api nūna, (a) rather
(than, with foll. negation, cf. Ja I 311,5 under a (1));
Ja IV 286,6* (~ ahaṁ marissaṁ, na ca panâhaṁ
rājaputta tava hessaṁ); — (β) interrogative; DN III
2,27 (api nūnâhaṁ evaṁ avacaṁ, did I ever say so
(to you); cf. ib. 3,12 (v. l.) = 4,14; — api pana,
interrogative; Ja I 468,30 (~ te . . . dāpitaṁ atthi,
but have you not?); V 439,31 (~ te kiñci dinnaṁ, did
you give her anything"}
); SN II 126,19 foll. (~ tvaṁ
evaṁ jānanto ... with indicative: but do you then (with
neg. answer
)); — api-ssu (cf. (s)su, assu, ind.), and
further, moreover;
Vin I 5,6 = SN I 136,19 (Ee api-
ssudaṁ; Spk) ≠ MN I 168,3 (Ps) ≠ I 240,29
(quoted Kacc-v 308) ≠ DN II 36,12 (Sv); Vin I 43,15;
II 7,19; 76,5 = III 159,22; Ja IV 352,8*; Spk I
196,27 (ad SN I 136,19): api-ssū ti anuggahanatthe
(Se anubrūhanatthe) nipāto; Sv (II) 465,10 (ad DN
II 36,12): anubrūhanatthe nipāto (pt: anubrūhanaṁ
sampiṇḍanaṁ) = Ps II 175,25; — api-ssudaṁ
(= api-ssu, cf. sudaṁ), nay, indeed; DN II 202,11 (~
manussā kittayamāna-rūpā viharanti); SN I 113,15
(~ paṭhavī maññe udrīyati); cf. SN I 136,1.9; — api
hā nūna, (cf. apihā below, and ha, ind.); Th 338 (~
mayi pi . . . te na . . ., verily, neither . . . nor; cf.
Th-a [below s. v. apiha] & Thī 207); — api hi,
though; DN II 99,22 (foll. by api ca, yet); DN II 130,30
(nevertheless); — app-ekadā (api + ekadā) q. v.;
app-eva (api + eva), (a) perhaps (with pot); Abh 1158
= Pay fol. ghṙ 5 ≠ Sadd 895,17; Sn 460 (app-ev'idha
abhivinde sumedhaṁ); 1058 (~ maṁ Bhagavā atthi-
taṁ ovadeyya, quoted Sadd 895,17); Thī 319 (~ maṁ so
Bhagavā sabbadukkhā pamocaye); Ja IV 294,6* (~
maṁ . . . na viheṭhayeyyuṁ); 381,8* (~ ārādhaye
dakkhiṇeyye; = app-eva nāma, Ct.); V 375,13*
(app-ev' atthavatiṁ vācaṁ vyākareyyuṁ); 493,25'
(= 'api'); VI 18,28* (~ te pita ... sumano siyâ);
— (β) with foll. api ca . . . yeva = as well . . . as (still
more
), MN I 252,35 (mayaṁ . . . bahukiccā . . . bahu-
karaṇīyā, ~ sakena karaṇīyena api ca devānaṁ yeva
. . . karaṇīyena; Ps); — app-eva nāma (cf. app-
eva (a)), perhaps (always with pot.), surely, probably;
Abh 1158 = Pay fol. ghṝs ≠ Sadd 895,17; Vin I
16,24; 1185,4; 262,14; II 117,18; DN I 48,22; 179,9
= AN V 185,24 = MN II 23,29 (Ps); DN I 205,6;
II 25,7; It 89,17 (= api nāma, It-a) = MN I 460,1;
MN I 334,1; AN IV 78,1 ≠ MN I 477,14 ≠ Sadd
895,18; Ja I 168,4; IV 381,15' (= 'app-eva'); 384,17'
(= 'app'eva naṁ'); V 234,10*; 421,17-18*; 422,5**;
507,3; VI 16,1'; Mil 10,34; Ras 10,16; do. repeated:
app-eva ca nāma ... app-eva nāma, DN I 226,32;
MN I 146,11-13 ≠ 228,17-19; — app-eva naṁ,
may be (with pot.); Ja IV 384,14* (= app-eva nāma
Ct.; as to naṁ cf. Pischel § 150); — — (2) enclitic
(in lieu of the more common pi; mainly in verse):
(a) = also, even: Sn 685 (aham api daṭṭhukāmo);
835 (nâhosi chando ~ methunasmiṁ; quoted Mp I
437,12*; Ud-a 383,2*: Dhp-a I 202,1*, cf. Divy 519,14*);
Dhp 106—107 (muhuttam api); Sn 1138—1140 (do.);
Ja VI 508,1* (api . . . ucchiṭṭham ~ bhuñjituṁ); Mhv
V 197 (no dāyako ~); Ja IV 416,26* (usunā sattiyā-m-
api, = or also); yad api . . ., tad api, SN V 110,30 . . .
111,27 (111,8 quoted As 145,20); 'pleonastic' like api ~
pi above a (1) in fine: yaṁ yaṁ . . . kāmayati, api
caṇḍālikām api), Ja VI 421,12*; — (b) âpi, contracted
with a prec
, a: ajjâpi (interrog.), Th 1198; MN I 23,29
(ajjâpi nūna); idhâpi, Ps II 84,13; Mhv VII 34 (v. l.
for sattâhaṁ); etthâpi, Ps II 288,3; jīvat' evâpi . . .
(api), Th 499 = 550; kiñcâpi (q. v.; Sadd 896,14-27) ...
na jānāti . . . pana . . ., Ja I 59,27 (although . . . not);
kiñcâpi so evaṁ vadeyya, Mil 46,24 (though he may say
so, cf. ib.
19); — câpi(aññe ~), Ja VI 502,31*; Sn 601 (pi
... na ~, but not); sabbatthâpi, Ps I 148,25; tatthâpi
mā, Mil 119,16 (neither in that point); tatrâpi . . .
dassetabbaṁ, Ps I 291,23; tatrâpi na sabbaṭṭhānesu,
Ps II 200,12; tatrap'asim evaṁnāmo, or tatra p'asiṁ
~, MN I 70,27 ≠ 122,20 (cf. tatra); tenâpi kāraṇena,
Mil 225,30; nâpi, Mil 59,1; na . . . na . . . nâpi (neither
... nor
), Ja III 55,4*; Mil 208,19; 298,15 foll.; na kho
... nâpi (do.), SN IV 163,19 (v. l.); na ca ... nâpi
(do.), Mil 58,22; n'atthi tassâpi pāṇâtipāto, Mil 26,1
(neither); pañcâpi . . . °ādayo pi ca, Mhv XX 54
(both ... and); punâpi, Ja VI 373,19* (cf. punappi,
ib.V 208,13*-14*); Ap 196,12; Mātaṅgenâpi, Mil 123,19
(cf. Dukūlena, ib. 16); vâpi, Sn 211 foll. (taṁ ~ dhīrā
muniṁ vedayanti; Pj with two explanations); sahâpi
dukkhena sahâpi domanassena, MN I 308,26 (both . ..
and; cf. ib.
314,1 foll.); avidūre sahâpi (even near), Ja
IV 217,10* (cf. saha, adv. & prp.); — after interrog.
pronouns see below under
pi; — (c) âpi so generally
transliterated after prec
, -ā (better ~ā pi): puttâpi,
DN II 257,9*; muddhâpi, Ja V 493,1*; yathâpi, Dhp
49 foll.; yassâpi, Ja I 307,14*; vittavâpi, Th 499 —
550; haṁsarājâpi, Ja I 208,1; hutvâpi, Ja IV 137,17;
pi gilānâpi ... pi . . ., Ja I 150,21 (either . . . or);
rattim pi divâpi, Ja II 133,1 (both . . . and); ye keci
. . . ye vâpi (or also), Ud 48,12* (v. l. ye câpi [metre:
ye ca pi]; Ud-a 278,14).
B, enclitic pi (Sadd 904,17-23) [select passages;
before vowels also
p', cf. °âpi above]: (a) like ci added
to interrog. pronouns giving an indefinite sense:
Ps I
101,34 (kam pi maññe bhaṇati); Pj II 411,31 (kam pi
c'annaih sandhāya); Dhp-a I 223,5 (kenâpi); Ja III
11,10 (do.); 53,19' (do.); Ps (SO III 621,6 (kassâpi
puññavato vimānaṁ bhavissati, so CkC; Se ekassa);
Ps I 229,11 (katarasmim pi ṭhāne); — also after °ci:
kassaci pi na . . ., Ja I 167,23; kenaci pi pariyāyena,
Ja VI 160,16; mā bhuñjetha kadāci pi, Mhv XXV
113; — (b) to other pronouns = also, even, fust: añño
pi, Ja I 149,24; aññe pi, Ja I 114,12 = Dhp-a I
240,1; aññāni pi, Ps II 180,15; aññam pi . . . duk-
khaṁ, Ja IV 48,17*; ayam pi, Vin III 45,18**; 46,10**
(47,19); 192,1** (193,14) ≠ JAs 1914 p. 490,1 (Sadd
884,17); Vin IV 213,17**(214,14'); 217,1**; MN I 85,16
foll.; 88,21; 95,10-21 (yam pi . . . ayam pi); It 1,16;
2,9 . . . 123,11 (vuttaṁ h'etaṁ . . . ayam pi attho
vutto); Dhp-a III 66,19; aham pi, Ja I 151,4; ita-
resu pi, Ps II 180,1; yam pi . . . idam pi, MN III
125,18-19 (but omitted ib. 119,12 & 1391,1); yam
pi . . . tarn pi, MN I 395,10-12; Ja I 222,11; tassa pi
hoti aññathattaṁ, MN II 253,1 (Ps); etesam pi, Ja
I 151,27; tumhe ce pi . . . tumhe pi, AN I 50,15-19;
tesu pi coresu, Dhp-a III 66,21; tvam pi, Ja I 222,13;
mamam pi, Ja VI 312,10*; mayham pi, Dhp-a II
122,13; followed by va: so pi suvaṇṇavaṇṇo va ahosi,
Ja 1149,25; — (c) do. to adv. or nouns: iti pi, Sn
p. 103,1 = DN I 49,17 = Vin III 1,13 (Sp), quoted
Vism 198,1; MN I 260,12 foll; ekavidhena pi, Mil
125,11; evam pi, Vin II 259,18-35; MN I 56,14 (Ps);
evam p'ahaih . . . vadāmi, MN I 390,3; [evam pi so,
Ud 47,23*, read evam piyo, see Ud-a 275,18; Vism
297,16*]; purimanayen'eva tato pi, Ja IV 140,4; tadā
p'ahaṁ . . ., Vin II 161,38; puna pi, Dhp-a III 82,5 (cf.
A 2 b above); puna p'evaṁ, Ja III 224,10* = Dhp-a
IV 67,21*; pubbe pi, Ja I 159,18; na idan'eva ...
pubbe pi, Ja I 157,17-18; II 175,21; II 182,13, etc.;
often to words ending in
°-mattaṁ (cf. antamaso, b):
°-mattam pi na, Ja III 55,15; VI 347,24; — seyyathā
pi (nāma) q. v., Sadd 896,3!.; — avasesānam pi, Ja
I 151,25; āsanena pi, MN II 8,7; daṇḍena pi, Dhp-a
IV 146,19; nāgo pi, Ja VI 77,26*; nisīthe pi, Ja IV
432,10*; papaṭikāya pi, Mil 180,25; pipīlikānam pi,
Ja III 276,23; punadivase pi, Ja I 278,26; VI 160,25;
buddhi pi tesaṁ (scil. dhātūnaṁ) attho, Ps I 131,4
= Sv I 229,22 = Mp II 107,10; brāhmaṇo pi, Dhp-a
II 85,11; sapatham pi katvā, Ja V 480,31 (cf. 481,2*);
samattho pi bhavissati, Ja II 102,20; Senako pi, Ja
VI 440,29; evaṁ sesesu pi, Ps I 291,23 (cf. passages
quoted above
A 2 b); —-(d) normally inserted after the
first word of a syntactic unit;
pabbajitā pi eke, Sn 43;
tāya pi parisāya, Ja IV 484,5 ≠ 485,4; ito uttarim
pi sabbavāresu, Ps I 214,30; ito paresu pi sabba-
vāresu, ib. 215,4; —- tmesis: antarā-pi-dhāyati, Vin
IV 54,24 (quoted Sadd 904,23), cf. Vin I 192,24; II
184,14, see anto above p. 250 b 30; — in free arrange-
ment:
Dhp 142 (alaṁkato ce pi); AN I 50,15 (tumhe
ce pi); Ja I 307,14* (itthī pi vidhavā); 386,2 (mayam
pi dve); III 26,25* (taṁ bahuṁ, yam pi jīvasi, v. l.);
V 429,15 (bhariyā pi 'ssa aputtikā; cf. ib. s); Mil
235,1 foll. (bhāsitam p'etaṁ . . . puna ca bhaṇi-
taṁ); Dḥp-a IV 75,7 (uḷuṅka-mattaṁ yāgum pi
kafacchu-mattam pi bhattaṁ; cf. °-mattam pi above
(c)): — DN II 202,14 = 204,5 (so kho pana pi . . .
ahosi Buddhe pasanno); Ps I 292,5 (samādhi-kam-
massa balavatī pi saddhā vaṭṭati); — (e) to numerals
or words denoting totality
= altogether, in all, just (even)
so many
(pi here nearlya definite article); amhehi
dvīhi pi, Ja II 153,14 (both of us); ubho pi (both), Ja I
223,15; VI 347,25; ubhinnam pi, As 16,34; ubhayena
pi, Dhp-a IV 35,β; te tayo pi sahāyā, Ja II 153,5
(cf. te pi tayo sahāyā, ib. 155,5); repeated: pot-
thakesu pi tīsu pi, Mhv XXXVII 241; cattāro pi,
Ja III 51,26; pañcapi upādāna-kkhandhā, Ps I 245,12;
— sakalo pi ce lokasannivāso, Ja III 55,21; sabbam
p'idaṁ, Dhp-a I 11,12*; te sabbe pi, Ja I 280,1;
sabbe pi, Mil 209,5; Mhv XXXVIII 12; sabbāni
p'etani, Sn 52; dasa pi . . . yojanāni, MN II 162,27;
aṭṭha pi rataniyo laṁghāmi, Mil 85,3; dvādasa pi
akusala-cittāni, Ps II 88,2; — (f) = perhaps, pos-
sibly, probably, surely
(I dare say): sace pi jānātha
vadetha āyuṁ, Ja IV 441,16*; bhariyaṁ jahituṁ
na sakkotī ti garahanti pi maṁ, Ja VI 64,15; —
(a) frequently with pot.: DN II 155,15 (siyā . . . satthu-
gāravena pi na puccheyyătha ... with pi also in the apo-
dosis
= in that case: sahāyako pi.. . sahāyakassa āro-
cetu); Ja I 128,1-4 (pāpakam pi cinteyya); 226,28 =
Dhp-a III 10,5 (hattham pi me olokeyyuṁ); Ja II
116,8 (rajjam pi gaṇheyyuṁ); IV 10,15 (iti pi mañ-
ñeyya); 124,27 (antarāyopi bhaveyya); 145,13 ('sadisī
no' ti vatvā asadisim pi dadeyyuṁ); V 93,9' (paccā-
mittam pi me gahetvā āgaccheyya); VI 18,22 (rājâ-
ṇam pi me kareyya); 56,19 (antarāyam pi 'ssa karey-
yuṁ); 544,2* (antarāyo pi me assa); Dhp-a I 134,16
(sīsam pi no sattadhā phāleyya ɔ: phaleyya);345,22
(dasidhītaram pi pahiṇeyyuṁ); II 174,5 (puttā-
naṁ anattham pi kareyya); — (β) also after
pot:
huveyya (hupeyya) p'avuso, MN I 171,16
(.Upaka's dialed; = evam pi nāma bhaveyya, Ps;
quoted Pj II 258,29, Sadd 454,24) ≠ Vin I 8,30; (sace
tiṭṭheyyāsi . . .) siyā pi, AN III 370,28; padub-
bheyyâpimeayaṁ, Ja II 203,22; khādeyyāsi pi maṁ,
Ja III 26,7; kujjheyya pi me ayaṁ, Ja IV 36,2 (cf.
v. l.); palāyeyyum pi, Ja IV 162,11; khipanaṁ paṭibā-
heyyum pi, Ja IV 194,1; maṁ hiṁseyyum pi, Ja V
502,27; ghāteyyum pi maṁ, Dhp-a I 137,20; — (γ) do.
sometimes omitted or w. r.:
Vin I 277,7 (caṇḍ'āyaṁ
rājā ghātāpeyyāsi maṁ ɔ: ghātāpeyyâpi maṁ?); II
190,22 (jāneyyāti ayyo Devadatto, v. l. jāneyyāsi o:
jāneyyâpi); Ja I 373,23 (nasseyyā'ti, mss. nasseyyāsī
ti ɔ: nasseyyâpī ti?); Ja IV 41,17 (paribhindeyya'ti
ɔ: ~eyyâpi); Ja IV 124,26 (ghātāpeyyā 'ti, CkíS
~eyyāsīti ɔ: ~eyyâpi?); Ja VI 184,12 (antarāyaṁ
kareyya 'ti, ɔ: kareyyâpi); — (J) do. followed by
fut.:
Ja I 451,25 (dāsa-paribhogena pi paribhuñ-
jissanti); 496,15' (ko jānāti kittakā pi (cf. e above)
āgamissanti); II 200,26 (mātaraṁ no disvā pi kiṁ
karissati); II 126,9 (ko jānāti kim p'esa karissati);
529,22 (kucchim me phāletvā pi palāyissati); IV
294,22 (aruṇe uggate pi . . . khādissāma); V 428,35
(vuddhippattam pi naṁ Bārāṇasirājā . . . mārā-
pessati); VI 54,23' (tāya vo lajjāya vippaṭisāro pi
bhavissati); Dhp-a III 101,6 (sāmikā pi vo kujjhis-
santi); — (g) = although: Ja I 266,28 (ahaṁ manus-
sabhūtopisamāno); II 105,26(evaṁsante pi); IV 1,16
(evaṁ vadantam pi); VI 347,15 (arocento pi, mss. āro-
cento); 366,11 (jānantopi); Mhv XXX 32 (do.); —(h)
= yet, still, at least; Vin III 17,19 (app-eva nāma . . .
tuyham pi vacanaṁ kareyya); app-eva nama sve pi,
DN I 205,19 (cf. svātanāya pi ib. 22); Ja VI 544,21*
(sace tvaṁ n'icchase daṭṭhuṁ . . . ayyakassa pi das-
sehi); — (i) (in questions) = even so much as: Vin
II 11,2 (ko imassa upagatassa piṇḍakam pi das-
sati) = III 181,7; MN I 132,27 (api nu . . . usmīkato
pi imasmiṁ dhamma-vinaye) = 258,27; — (k) often
used to introduce the continuation of the story, em-
phasizing the new agens
= and, but (then): Ja I
87,31-32 (satthā pi . . . thero pi . . .); 208,1 (haṁsa-
răjâpi); II 110,25 (vāṇijo pi); 155,5 (te pi tayo sa-
hāyā); IV 2,26 (so pi uḷumpe nipajjitvā . . .); 209,26
(vaḍḍhakī pi); VI 347,19-20 (sa pi); 540,16 (Jūjako
pi . . . gantvā); Dhp-a I 8,19 (te pi . . . adhivāsesuṁ);
13,9 (thero pi itare . . . ovadati); II 88,12 (bhikkhū
pi); III 171,11 (satthā pi); see besides: Ja IV 483,18
(cf. 482,1-8); 485,1 (cf. 484,5); — (1) pi ... pi, whether
(either) ... or: Vin II 183,24 (araññagato pi rukkha-
mūlagato pi, etc.); 194,33 (bhattam pi vetanam pi);
Sn 808 (diṭṭhā pi sutā pi); MN I 519,19 (itthiyā pi
purisassa pi nāmam pi gottam pi, etc.); SN III
99,26-2 7 (so pi saṁkhāro ... sa pi taṇhā, etc.);
V 421,20 = Vin I 10,26 ≠ Mil 196,13 (jāti pi dukkhā,
jarā pi dukkhā, etc.); Ja I 222,8 (jale pi thale pi);
further exx. see MN I 22,12-16; 307,33-36; 1139,3-4:
262,1; Ja III 111,2-3; VI 305,21 (... pi . . . pi ... eva);
Dhp-a I 4,18; 16,13; III 113,1; IV 35,1; Sp (IV)
887,17; Ps III 2,18; — DN III 103,23 (evam pi te
mano, ittham pi te mano, iti pi te cittaṁ); Ja I 150,21
(kilamanti pi ... pi ... pi); with negation: Dhp-a I
441,3-4 (. . . pi na jānāmi ... pi na jānāmi, neither
. . . nor
); — (β) now . . . now: Mil 171,25 (hananti
pi, bandhanti pi, etc.); Ja II 102,4 (vāsi pi hoti pharasu
pi); VI 275,2-3 (assa-sahassam pi . . . maṇi-sahassam
pi); 318,7*-8*; see also pi . . . eva ... pi ca ... eva,
Ps II 377,5 (cf. Pj II 40,26);—(δ) pi ... pi na, or .. .
no pi: Sn 681 (yadā pi . . . tadā pi na, even when . . .
then not
); (or a- in the second member): Ja I 167,18
(mārente pi a-mārente pi, whether . . . or not); SN
IV 315,15 (tattha patiṭṭhāpeyya pi, no pi patiṭṭhā-
peyya, he might or might not, cf. α-β above); —
(m) (α) pi na, pi . . . na, or pi . . . a-° = even . . .
not, or not even:
Ja I 151,22 (manussesu pi na diṭṭḥa-
pubbo); 222,20 (ekamaccham pi nâddasa): II 104,15
(eko pi . . . nâsakkhi); 164,18 (ekavacanam pi . . . ka-
thetuṁ na sakkoti); Dhp-a III 82,7 (asso pi te nâ-
nucchaviko); 118,6 (appamattako pi hi ettha sāro
n'atthi); Dhp-a IV 203,3 (pabbajitum pi na sakkomi);
Ps 1185,80-21 (eko pi... pucchitā pi nâhosi); Mil 116,1
(tattha pi . . . na); 168,29 (ekassa pi a-dassanīyaṁ);
Dhp-a I 5,6 (ekam eva divasam pi . . . a-pucchita-
pubbo); — (β) also: na pi, na . . . na pi, neither . . .
nor, or
na . . . pi, not even: DN III 103,32 (na h'eva
kho . . . na pi . . . api ca kho); MN III 16,18 (na kho
. . . na pi . . . , yo kho . . .) = SN III 101,1 (C-mss.;
E
e nâpi); Ja III 309,27* (n'eva . . . na pi); IV 42,6*
(na vâhaṁ . . . na pi me . . .); 142,14* (nâbhijānāmi
. . . ekapāṇam pi hiṁsitaṁ ɔ: hiṁsitā or °tuṁ); DN
III 19,7 (na sakkosi āsanā pi vuṭṭhātuṁ); n'eva
. . . na . . . na pi, Ps I 293,23-24 — Sv (III) 790,5;
— (n) combined with other particles: (a ) pi kho,
surely, indeed; MN I 47,1 foll. (ettāvatā pi kho . . .
ariyasāvako sammādiṭṭhi hoti); ayam pi kho, MN II
195,7 (cf. ayaṁ kho, ib'.'ii); 204,7; 208,8; Ja II 110,18*
(ciram pi kho, with pot. in the sense of conditional);
DN I 1,7 (Suppiyo pi kho, likewise also S., cf. Sv I
35,31); — (β) pi ca, and also; saraṇesu ṭhito eko, pañ-
casīle pi câparo, Mhv XXV 110; pi ... ca, both ... and
as well
, Ps III 200,19-20; pi ... ca ... ca, DN I
249,13-14; pi ... pi c'eva, Ja VI 139,9* (ye (pi)
... ye pi e'eva ... ye câpi); ca ... pi ca, Mhv
XXX 79; — (γ) pi tāva, at least, at all events;
Ja VI 566,19 (jānissāmi pi tāva); Mil 201,10-il
(ettha pi tāva); — (δ) pi náma, perhaps even, Ps II
189,20 (evam pi nāma bhaveyya — 'huveyya pi');
Dhp-a I 8,25 (aphāsukam pi nāma hoti); repeated,
MN I 237,28; Dhp-a IV 136,18 (acchariyaṁ . . . eva-
rūpo pi nāma . . . ānubhāvo hoti, = verily, indeedl);
Dhp-a IV 25,13 (do.); — (ε) pi re, expression of
contempt, cf.
je; Vin IV 139,3 (cara pi re vinassa, get
away
); cf. Sadd 884,20 & DN I 107,18; — (o)"pi
is sometimes nearly pleonastic (or = perhaps): Ja VI
54,21' (pacchā pi gamissasi); 302,5* (dīgho hi addhā
pi ayaṁ puratthā); — (p) sometimes pi is mistaken
for
si (cf. si for pi above under f(γ)): Vin I 269,33
(mayâsi posāpito, Ee mayâpi); 278,21 (yaṁ si na
nivatto, Ee yam pi); Ja IV 409,23 (sacc si; sace
pi, w. r. Bd, cf. V 439,8 read sace si); VI 101,20 (sace
pi ɔ: sace si); 140,22' (do.).