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1kāraṇa,

n. [ts.], 1.a. acting, action;1.b. action, i.e. torture, cf. Kasussyntax § 142 n. 3, cf. kammakā̆raṇa 4., q.v.;2. material cause, ground;3.a. condition, pre­re­qui­site;3.b. reason, cause, motive;3.c. the cause of, the reason for, (i) c. gen.;(ii) c. loc.;(iii) c. dat.;4.a. argument, method;4.b. matter, incident;gramm. lit.: (etym.): attano phalaṁ karotîti ~aṁ, Sadd 516,19; Mogg V 37; ~aṁ hi yasmā phalaṁ nideti ... tasmā ni­dā­naṁ vuccati, Sp II 27,35; kārayatîti ~an ti, Paṭis-a 216,11; taṁ taṁ ~aṁ paṭicca … paccuppannā, Paṭis-a 19,27 (ex­plain­ing paṭi-); — lex. lit.: nimittaṁ ~aṁ ṭhānaṁ padaṁ bījaṁ nibandhanaṁ nidānaṁ pabhavo hetu sam­bhavo se­tu paccayo, Abh 91; ~aṁ yaṁ samāsannaṁ padaṭṭhānan ti, Abh 92 (ct. tividhaṁ ~aṁ: upādāna-°~aṁ sahakārī-°~aṁ kāraṇa-°~aṁ); samayo … ~e, Abh 778 (ct. samayo pi kho te Bhaddāli appaṭividdho ty ādīsu ~e, cf. M I 439,4); setu ~e, Abh 1100; — exeg.: aṭṭhānan ti hetu­paṭik­khepo. anavakāso ti paccayapaṭikkhepo, ubhaye­nâpi ~am eva paṭikkhipati. ~aṁ hi tadāyatta­vuttitāya attano phalas­sa ṭhānan ti ca avakāso ti ca, Ps IV 106,26–29 (ad M III 64,16), cf. Ps I 102,7 foll., s. below (a).(xvi) ṭhāna, q.v.;(a) syn., cf. kāraṇa-vevacana, kāraṇâdhi­vac­ana, q.v.: (i) aṅga: aṅgan ti ~aṁ vuccati, Vism 60,8 qu. Nidd-a I 195,14; iminā aṅgenâti iminā ~ena, Sv 281,1; catūhi aṅgehîti (Sn 78,8) catuhi ~ehi avayavehi vā, Pj II 395,21; aṅgesûti ~esu avayavesu vā, Sv-pṭ II 409,14 ≠ Spk I 272,8; Sv-pṭ II 45,22; Mp I 84,24; It-a I 62,12; Cp-a 219,9; — (ii) attha or atthavasa: Abh 785; attho ti ca ~ass’ etaṁ adhivacanaṁ, Spk I 334,22 qu. Pj II 238,6; sahassam pi ~ānaṁ, Spk I 348,5 (ad atthānaṁ, S I 229,13); Ja IV 77,12’; VI 361,4; Dhp-a III 435,5 (ad atthavasaṁ, Dhp 289); atthavase ti ~āni, Mp II 119,7; Pj II 238,12; kis­miñ­cid eva ~e vā pañhe vā uppanne, Ja I 387,13’ (ad atthe jāte, 4*); — (iii) adhikaraṇa: Abh 868; Sp 608,2; adhi­ka­ra­ṇaṁ ~ass’ etaṁ nāmaṁ, Sv 500,5 = Mp IV 190,12 = Paṭis-a 119,35 = Vibh-a 513,8; — (iv) antara, cf. 2antara, q.v.: antarāsaddo pana °-khaṇacitta­vemajjha­vi­varā­disu vat­tati, Sv 34,27 = Mp III 75,25; ~e antarāsaddo, Sv 34,30 = Mp III 76,3 qu. Ud-a 109,27 = Cp-a 16,19; antaran ti ~aṁ vuccati, Sp 1133,9; — (v) apadāna: apadānasaddo kā­ra­ṇa-gahaṇa-° + dissati, Ap-a 101,23; — (vi) avakāsa, cf. (xiii) okāsa, (xvi) ṭhāna, q.v.;(vii) avayava, cf. (i) aṅga, q.v.; — (viii) ākāra: Abh 982; ekenâkārenâti ekena ~ena, Nidd-a I 351,10; ākārehîti ~ehi, Sp 180,11; ākārā ~āni, Ps II 386,17 (Ee ~ā) qu. Sv-pṭ II 240,16; ke ākārâti kāni ~āni, Ps V 105,7; Ja II 132,5; IV 198,24’; — (ix) āyatana: phassapañcamakā dhammā … tāni ca tesaṁ ~n ti āya­ta­nā­ni, Sv 125,8; Ps IV 59,6 (ad M II 262,14); Ps III 202,17 = IV 146,3 ad M I 494,35; Mp III 411,8; Ud-a 390,7; Sv-pṭ III 169,13 (ad āyatanaṁ, Sv 945,15); ~aṁ āyatanan ti vuccati, It-a II 169,4; Sv-pṭ III 326,4; ~asmiṁ, Mp II 331,13 (ad āyatane, A I 218,32); ~en’ eva, Mp III 99,16 (ad āyatanaso, A II 67,37); Ps IV 59,7; — (x) āhāra: āhāro … ~e, Abh 856 “support”, “cause,cf. 1āhāra 2., q.v.;(xi) upanisā: Abh 1125; kā upanisā kiṁ ~aṁ kiṁ payo­ja­naṁ, Pj II 503,9 (ad Sn 140,5); — (xii) upāya: upāyaṁ he­tuṁ ~aṁ uppādeti vaḍḍhati, As 200,30; upāyena ~ena kat­tab­baṁ kiccaṁ sampajjati, Ja VI 16,20’ (ad sammadattho, 17*); — (xiii) okāso, Abh 1101, cf. (xvi) ṭhāna, okāsa 3.c., q.v.: ~aṁ hi yasmā tattha tadāyattavuttibhāvena phalaṁ tiṭ­ṭhati yasmā c’assa taṁ okāso … tasmā ṭhānañ ca ava­kā­so ca, Sp 229,29, cf. Ps I 102,7 foll.; Sv 659,1; Spk II 106,28; dvīsu okāsesu dvīsu ~esu, Mp II 159,7; — (xiv) odhi: odhiso ti ~so, Mp III 149,11; — (xv) ñāya: Abh 784; ñāyenâti ~ena, Ja V 405,5; ñāyena ~ena samena vi­harissāmîti, Sv 739,23; ~aṁ nipphādessati, Sv 909,26 (ad ñāyaṁ ārādhessati, D III 120,8); ~ena ñāyena vā, Vv-a 154,13 (ad dhammena); dhamman ti ~aṁ ñāyaṁ, Pv-a 211,24; ariye ñāye (M I 502,19) … parisuddhe ~e, Ps III 211,25; 443,26 (ad M II 197,7); — (xvi) ṭhāna cf. (xiii) okāsa, kāraṇabhūta, q.v.: ṭhānaṁ avakāso ti … °âdhi­vaca­naṁ, ~aṁ hi tiṭṭhati, Sv 658,34 foll., cf. kāraṇâdhivacana, q.v.; ṭhānan ti ~aṁ, Spk I 133,16; Sv-pṭ III 237,4; It-a II 155,22; Pj II 298,25; Ap-a 108,10; Ja IV 178,18’; ṭhānan ti ~aṁ vuccati, As 53,10; ṭhānañ ca ṭhānato ti ~añ ca kāraṇato, Ps II 28,24; ṭhānasaddo issariyaṭhitikkhaṇa­kā­ra­ṇe­su … ṭhānañ ca ṭhānato … (M I 69,34) ti ādisu ~e … ~aṁ hi yasmā tattha phalaṁ tiṭṭhati tadāyattavutti­bhā­ve­na, Ps I 102,7–15 ≠ Sadd 354,1, cf. Sp 229,29; pāsaṁsāni ṭhānānîti pasaṁ­sāvahāni ~āni, Mp V 47,16; nibbattāpana­kā­naṁ ~ānaṁ, Ps II 325,11 (ad āpāyikānaṁ ṭhānānaṁ, M I 281,27); ṭhānehîti ~ehi, Sv 943,18 = Ps I 102,7; III 47,4 = Spk III 109,9 = Mp II 250,25 = III 171,19; ṭhāṇānîti ~āni, Sv 582,17 = Mp III 121,21 qu. Sv-pṭ I 177,5 = II 106,8; paripucchako … + ~e ca ṭhānâṭhāne ca, Nidd I 234,23; — (xvii) ṭhiti: ~e ṭhitisaddo, Paṭis-a 239,14; — (xviii) naya, cf. (xxviii) hetu, q.v.: nayo ti ~aṁ, Ja III 482,2; hetunā nayena (Be ñāyena) ~ena, Dhp-a I 434,6; — (xix) nidāna, cf. (xxii) paccaya, (xxviii) hetu, q.v.: nidānānîti ~āni, Mp II 209,19 = 367,21; — (xx) nimitta, cf. kāraṇa­bhūta, q.v.: Abh 979; nimittānîti ~āni, Ps II 87,22; nimittaṁ ~ass’ etaṁ adhivacanaṁ, Mp-ṭ II 25,4; ni­mit­taṁ ~aṁ sukhadukkhuppattihetuṁ jānantîti nemittā, Ap-a 424,31; — (xxi) pakaraṇa: pakaraṇe ti ~e, Mp IV 37,8; Sv-pṭ I 397,16 (Ee karaṇe); — (xxii) paccaya, cf. (xix) nidāna, (xxviii) hetu, q.v.: paccayo pi ~ass’eva nāmaṁ, Sv 371,19; Sv-pṭ III 220,8; nidānaṁ ~aṁ paccayo, Mp II 209,23; — (xxiii) pada: padaṁ ṭhāne parittāṇe nibbānamhi ca ~e, Abh 819; maccuno padan ti maraṇassa ~aṁ, Ja V100,18’; 342,29’; — (xxiv) pariyāya: Abh 837; pariyāyo ti ~aṁ, Sp 132,5 = Spk III 169,20 qu. Ja III 211,22’; Mp IV 78,4; Ps I 18,5 = It-a I 151,28; pariyāyasaddo vārades­anā-° ~esu vattati, Sv 36,16 foll.; pariyāyan ti ~aṁ, Ps III 114,9; Spk III 79,29; na kenaci pariyāyena ~ena vā, Ps I 89,14; pariyāyenâti ~ena, III 114,11 = Spk I 57,28 = Mp IV 194,13; — (xxv) mūla: akusaladhammānaṁ ~āni, It-a II 1,11 (ad akusalamūlāni); avijjā mūlaṁ ~aṁ etesan ti avijjāmūlakā, Nidd-a II 12,23; I 353,23; — (xxvi) vaṇṇa: Pj I 114,17 = Sadd 534,7 = Abh 779; ‘kena nu vaṇṇena gandhatheno ti vuccatîti’ … ~e, Sv 961,14 (cf. S I 204,32* = Ja III 308,21*) = Ps II 125,11 = Spk I 14,28 = Mp II 376,11 qu. Pj I 115,1 = Vv-a 16,20 qu. Sadd 534,13; vicitrāni ~āni vadantā, Ja VI 215,12’ (ad 211,26* cittehi vaṇṇehi); — (xxvii) vatthu: Abh 970; vatthūnîti ~āni, Paṭis-a 76,15; Mp V 72,20; — (xxviii) hetu, cf. (xviii) naya, (xix) nidāna, (xxii) paccaya, q.v.: Abh 973; hetu pi paccayo pi ~ass’ eva nāmaṁ, Sv 371,19 (asādhār­aṇo hetu, sādhāraṇo paccayo, Sv-pṭ I 478,4–7, cf. kāraṇa­sām­añ­ñavisaya, q.v.); hetu ~aṁ paccayo mato, Abhidh-av 58,32*; Ap-a 231,23; hetunā nayena ~ena jānitvā vimutto, Mp II 235,19 (i.e.: sammadaññāvimutto); hetunā nayena ~ena, Ps II 7,7; nayato ca ~ato ca hetuto ca, Mil 345,10; hetu ~aṁ nidānaṁ sambhavo, Vism 533,2; ~ato ti hetuto, Sv-pṭ II 269,29; ~e câti hetumhi ca, Nidd-a I 453,24; sahetukena ~ena (v.l. sa-° ~ena) vacanena, Mp V 63,11; hetunā ~ena vutto, Ja IV 242,9 (ad sammā vutto, 241,13*); hetunā ~ena, Ps I 87,3 (i.e.: sammā); Spk III 75,5; Dhp-a IV 110,8; hetunā ~ena vipassanāpaññāya, V 96,9 (i.e.: sammappañ­ñāya); Mp III 152,8; Spk I 26,1; tathāgatena … hetunā ~ena sayam eva abhisam­buddhā +, Sv 1057,14; — (b) c. adv., pron., particle, cf. kāraṇavacana 1.b(i)., q.v.: yaṁ taṁ yato tato yena teneti ~e siyuṁ, Abh 1145 (ct. yam-ādayo cha kāraṇatthe siyuṁ); yan ti yena ~ena, Ps IV 61,17; tan ti ~aṁ, Sv-pṭ II 285,29; hi ~e, Abh 1197; Pj II 451,17 (cf. kāraṇattha, q.v.); etthâti etasmiṁ ~e, Ja IV 248,14’; kismin ti katarasmiṁ ~e, VI 493,1; kuto kin ti kena ~ena, Mp III 215,14; tasmiṁ ~e, Ja VI 515,28’ (ad tasmiṁ, 25*); — (c) nom. and instr. as equi­va­lent in interr. clause, cf. 3kāraṇā, b., q.v.: kiṁ ~aṁ kena ~ena, Mogg-v ad II 25, cf. 3kāraṇā b., q.v.; kiṁ ~aṁ, kena kāraṇena, Spk II 290,3; kena nāma ~ena kiṁ nāma ~aṁ passanto, Sp 220,6 (i.e.: kathaṁ); ~aṁ āha … kim pana ~aṁ … ti ce, Pj II 451,17 foll. (read kim pana ~ā, split-cpd., with v.l.?); kasmā ~ā? mahanta­tāya sabbaññubud­dha­guṇānaṁ, Mil 239,17–18 qu. Sv 903,6 (old w.r. kasmā kāraṇamah-°, cf. kāraṇa­mahantatāyâti ~ānaṁ mahantataā­ya Sv-pṭ III 108,19) = Mp II 13,28; — 1.a. so neva ~ato uddhaṁ kārakaṁ passati, Vism 602,27 foll. “he sees no doer over and above the doing” Vism-trsl. (Ñm); imāni satta ~āni cetanākammaṁ, Nett 43,25these seven kinds of acting are actions as choices” Nett-trsl.; kammâyata­nâdī­naṁ pañcannaṁ ~ānaṁ apaccanī­ka­dassanena, Vibh-a 411,35 qu. Sv-pṭ III 273,14 (i.e. duvidhaṁ kammaṁ + duvi­dhaṁ sippaṁ + vijjāṭṭhānaṁ) “by showing non-op­po­sition to the five actions, occupations which are the sphere of work etc.”; imāni pañca ~āni karoto so ambo … phalaṁ deti, Ps II 347,6; vidito vo adhippāyo thūpassa ~e mayā, Mhv XVII 4 (Ee ka°); ime brāhmaṇā … vicitrehi ~ehi mukhaṁ pasārenti, Ja VI 215,9; — 1.b. tantarajju­kaṁ eva ~aṁ katvā … jīvitakkhayaṁ pāpayiṁsu, Ja IV 87,29; — 2. kamma­kārakaṁ … vikaraṇīyaṁ … duvidhaṁ pari­cat­ta­kāraṇaṁ aparicatta­kāra­ṇan ti tattha paricatta­kāraṇaṁ nāma yaṁ ~assa vināsena sambhūtaṁ, Sadd 692,14; kaṭ­ṭhaṁ hi aṅgāra­bhāvassa ~aṁ, aṅgāre kate kāraṇa­bhūtassa kaṭṭhassa kaṭṭhabhāvo vigacchati, 599,12–14; yonîti khan­dha­koṭṭhāsassa pi ~assa pi passāvamag­gassa pi nāmaṁ, Mp II 182,15 (ad A I 113,15); yathā … koci puriso … bhūmiṁ ~aṁ katvā bhūmisāmiko nāma hoti, Mil 219,5; sid­dhe hi ~e phalaṁ siddham eva hoti, Sv-pṭ II 59,18 ≠ 424,24; phalena ~assa abhedûpacāraṁ vadati, It-a I 75,15he speaks figuratively equating the cause and its frui­tion” It-a-trsl. (Masefield): I 190 with n. 2, cf. Sadd 6.0.3; — 3.a. sattā catūhi ~ehi pāsādikā honti āmisadān­ena + … imāni cat­tāri ~āni … tathāgatena katān’eva, Sv 934,7–10…these conditions were met by the Tathāgata”; jala­japupphaṁ … dve ~āni nissāya jāyati udakañ ca kala­lañ ca, Ja II 235,20’; vedanā … + phassasaṅghaṭanañ câti cattāri ~āni paṭicca uppajjati, Vibh-a 34,2; catūhi vā ~ehi paṇḍito: dhātukusalo +, Ps II 78,18 = Spk II 390,1; + anu­sā­vanāya (so read) + …pañcahi ~ehi saṅghabhedo hoti, Sp 608,8, cf. Sp 1377,27–1378,22; bahūhi ~ehi gharâvāse ādīnavaṁ, Ps III 247,28; — satthalūkhaṁ sutta­lūkhaṁ rajanalūkhan ti tīhi ~ehi lūkhaṁ (sc. cīvaraṁ), Ps I 149,16; pañcasu ~esu añña­taravasena paccāmittā jini­tab­bā: … mantaṁ parijapitvā +, Ja III 205,23’; aṭṭhahi ~ehi paṭha­vīkampo veditabbo: dhātu­khobhena +, Sv 130,18; aṭṭhahi ~ehi bhagavā tathāgato: tathā āgato +, Sv 59,31 ≠ Ud-a 133,5; dasah’ ākārehi … dasahi ~ehi kodho up­paj­jati, Nidd-a I 321,18 (cf. Nidd I 215,17–23); pañcahi ākā­re­hi pañcahi ~ehi pañcahi aṅgehi, Sp 370,26, cf. pañca sam­bhā­rā, Sv 71,27; — 3.b. vada Kassapa ~aṁ kena …, Ja IV 241,1*; aññam pi tattha paṭirūpaṁ ~aṁ suṇohi yena …, Vibh-a 435,29; thero ~aṁ pucchanto ko … hetûti, Sp 184,31 (ad Vin III 8,1); satthāraṁ taṁ ~aṁ pucchi, Mp I 29,2; qu. Pj I 127,25*; tassa ~assa jānanatthāya, Ja V 408,11; dve ~āni sampassamāno, Ps I 128,35 (ad dve atthavase, M I 23,32); ettha ~aṁ bhavissati, Mp I 44,7; atth’ etaṁ ~aṁ, Ja II 170,4; tattha ~aṁ na dissati, Sp 763,22; etaṁ ~aṁ na vijjati, Sv 274,2 (ad n’etaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati, D I 104,16); taṁ ~aṁ vijjati, Ps IV 61,19; — porāṇakattherā … ~am eva gaṇhanti akāraṇam eva vis­saj­jen­ti, I 231,8; nâhaṁ ~aṁ vā akāraṇaṁ vā jānāmi, Ja III 513,12; vitakkayato ekaṁ ~aṁ upaṭṭhāti … etāni ~āni paṭikkhipitvā, Spk II 122,25–29; ~ato sādhetukāmo … āha, Sv 112,11; atthaṁ hāpeti ~aṁ na vadati, Sp 1153,12 (Ee, Ce 1900 so; Be na deti); evarūpāni … aññāni pi bahu­vi­dhā­ni ~āni disvā, Mil 214,14; bahūni ~āni dassento, Sv 592,5; ~aṁ sallakhetvā, Sp 231,16; Ap-a 12,16; saṅ­gha­bhe­danipphattisamatthaṁ ~aṁ gahetvā, Sp 608,12 (so read with Be); avijjâdīhi ~ehi saṅkhārâdīnaṁ pavatti, Vism 578,2; anurūpaṁ ~aṁ labhitvā, Yam-a 86,21; atthā­naṁ vā yāni nipuṇāni ~āni, Pj II 215,17 (ad nipuṇat­tha­das­siṁ, Sn 176); ekaṁ ~aṁ paṭicca, Ja IV 460,5 (ad atthena, 459,18*); uppannaṁ ~aṁ paṭicca desitāni … tesaṁ atthuppattiko nikkhepo, Bv-a 64,25; etesaṁ ~ānaṁ aññataravasena, Sp 1364,14 (Ee w.r. kar-°; ad Vin V 163,14); — yujjati ~assa san­nihitattā, Sv-pṭ I 250,16 (cf. kāraṇa-sannihitatta, q.v.); attano ~assa vasena paveditattā, Paṭis-a 107,6; — frequently: “because of …”: imasmā ~ā, Sv-pṭ I 242,1; Pv-a 40,24; imehi tīhi ~ehi, Mp II 51,2; — interr. clause: kena ~ena vadesi, yena ~ena, tena ~ena, Sadd 707,6; kena ~ena, Nett 30,14; kissa hetûti … kena hetunā kena ~ena, Paṭis-a 703,4; kismiṁ pana so ~e āghātaṁ bandhi, Mp IV 171,3; — rel. clause: yena ~ena, yasmiṁ ~e satîti attho, Ps II 75,4 (i.e.: yatonidānaṁ); tattha … ~aṁ atthi yena Bhagavā ~ena paṭikkhipi, Mil 195,22; yena ~ena pañho suvinicchito hoti tena ~ena maṁ saññāpehi, 124,11 foll.; balavaṁ tattha mayaṁ ~aṁ upa­la­bhā­ma yena mayaṁ ~ena saddahāma, 124,30; — with dem. pron.: iminâpi ~ena uccākulikānaṁ aggo, Mp I 193,8; iminâpi ~ena bhaṇāmi, Mil 84,11; tassa pi ten’ eva ~ena Anagga­pāko ti nāmaṁ, Mp I 252,11; ettakena ~ena, II 260,11; tena ~ena puññaṁ vaḍḍhati, Mil 84,8; — pasiddhaṁ ~aṁ yattha nivattetvâññakāraṇaṁ, Subodh 249 (defining the poet. figure vibhāvanā, cf. Gerow, Glossary 1971: 264); — 3.c.(i) apaññâdilābhâdīnaṁ ~aṁ, Pj II 238,13; arahatta­phalassa ~e anuppatte, Spk III 130,27; āgamanassa ~aṁ, It-a II 123,17; kandanassa ~aṁ, Pv-a 262,16; kalahassa ~aṁ pucchati, Nidd-a I 351,23; khattiyānaṁ ~aṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ ~an ti attho, Ap-a 101,26; adahanassa ~aṁ dasseti, Ud-a 114,20; diṭṭhīnaṁ ~āni, Paṭis-a 435,25; dibbasampattiyā ~aṁ, Vv-a 22,4; dham­mud­desassa ~aṁ, Ps III 307,14; paṭhavīcalanassa ~aṁ, Sv-pṭ III 108,10; pavattiyâpi ~aṁ, Paṭis-a 239,6; — c.(ii) aj­jhattasantāne aññassa ~assa abhāvato, Nidd-a I 229,7 = Paṭis-a 364,5; catunnaṁ nimittānaṁ bhagavato anak­ka­ma­ne ~aṁ, Sp 1209,18; adassane ~aṁ niddisanto, Bv-a 84,8; apaṭisaṅ­kharaṇe ~aṁ dassetvā, Th-a II 204,18; evaṁ kathane ~aṁ pubbe vuttam eva, Sp 379,26; gambhī­ra­bhāve ~aṁ dassetuṁ, Th-a III 142,29; dāne ~aṁ dassento, Cp-a 61,20; dāyādabhāve ~aṁ vadantī, Th-a I 75,19 (Be so; Ee -bhāva-); etesaṁ pi dīpane ~aṁ, 130,15; ye ye ti tassa matabhāve ~aṁ dassenti, Ja III 426,22’; pubbe vut­tam ev’ ettha ~aṁ, Sp 1409,4; — frequently in cts.: tattha ~am āha, Ud-a 97,7; Pj II 45,4; Pv-a 122,28; Sv-pṭ II 296,25; — c.(iii) paṇḍita­bhāvatthāya ~āni, Mp V 72,20; — 4.a. buddhâdīhi vaṇṇitaṁ … ~am eva, Ja III 367,19’ (i.e.: dham­maṁ); yathā ca buddhassa evaṁ dhammassâpi taṁ taṁ akāraṇam eva ~ato vatvā, Sv 37,3 (i.e.: avaṇṇaṁ bhā­sa­ti); kiṁ … tava vāde gārayhaṁ ~aṁ natthi?, 350,1 (ad D I 161,16); sûpadassitaṁ opammaṁ, suniddiṭ­ṭhaṁ ~aṁ, Mil 271,5well expressed the argument“ Mil-trsl. (Hor­ner), “… die Sache gut erklärt” Mil-trsl. (Nyanatiloka), “bien exprimé l’argument“ Mil-trsl. (Nolot); sukathito … pañho opammehi ~ehi, Mil 239,28 qu. Ps IV 121,15 = Vibh-a 436,26 ≠ Mp II 14,8; sakkā … opammena vā ~ena vā hetunā vā nayena vā upadas­sayituṁ, Mil 315,30; atthañ ca upamāyo ca ~āni ca āharitvā, Ps II 167,23 (upamupa­mey­yasambandha­vibhāva­nāni ~āni, Ps-pṭ II 125,22 read upamānu°?); upamāya ca ~ena kathessati, Ja I 448,1; mayhaṁ ~ena, Ja III 488,33’ (read ~ā ? cf. 3kāraṇā b., q.v.); taṁ atthaṁ ~ena sādhento taṁ kissa hetûti ādim āha, Ps I 96,16; udāharaṇena ~aṁ dassento, Sv-pṭ I 241,30; paṭicchannaṁ ~aṁ āvikaritvā, Sv 276,28; idāni nesaṁ saccabhāvaṁ ~ena dassento, Sv-pṭ I 500,3; ekaṁ ~aṁ āharitvā, Ja VI 361,26; sādhurūpaṁ Senakena ~aṁ āharitaṁ (v.l. ābhataṁ), sakkhissati nu kho me putto … aññaṁ ~aṁ āharituṁ … imasmiṁ ~e āhaṭe, 362,11 foll.; tassa … ~ena ~aṁ kathayissāmi, Mil 339,23; aparaṁ … ut­tariṁ ~aṁ suṇohi, 315,1; daḷhaṁ ~aṁ, 107,25; gamane pana daḷhataraṁ ~aṁ dassetuṁ, Vv-a 317,17; atthañ ca ~añ ca dassetvā, Ps II 393,29; atthañ ca ~añ ca ākaḍḍhitvā, Dhp-a II 95,11; atthato ca ~ato ca paññāya, Ps II 253,9 = Mp III 29,7; evaṁ atthen’ atthe ~ena ~e ciṇ­ṇa­caritattā maggapaññāya sudiṭṭhā honti, Ps III 191,22; ~o phalato atthato ca, Sv-pṭ II 333,15; suttañ ca ~añ ca das­sen­to, Sp 790,30; ~ato ca ārammaṇato ca, Spk II 154,19; — 4.b. tayā paṭivijjhitabbayuttakaṁ ekaṁ ~aṁ atthi, Ps III, 151,19 (ad M I 438,32); atth’ idaṁ ~aṁ … ~assa abhū­ta­bhāvaṁ ñatvā, Mp I 264,22–265,4 qu. Th-a I 68,24–30this is a fact … having recognized that the facts were wrong”; satthā taṁ ~aṁ ñatvā, Ja I 133,29; rukkha­devatā taṁ ~aṁ ñatvā, 442,11; ikkhaṇikā gantvā taṁ ~aṁ rañño ārocesi, 457,21; II 7,17; tena tasmiṁ ~e ārocite, IV 427,9; imāni tīṇi ~āni disvā puna āgato, I 403,22’; idaṁ kira ~aṁ bhikkhusaṅghe pākaṭam ahosi, II 64,9; evaṁ Bodhisattena ~e kathite, 357,23; imassa pana ~assa paccakkhakārikā Gaṅgātīre nibbattarukkha­devatā, 152,19 = 162,9 (so read with Be); taṁ taṁ ~am āgamma, Dhp-a I2 1,7*in every matter” Dhp-a-trsl. (Burlingame); imasmiṁ pi ~e sā niddosā, Dhp-a I 403,16; imasmiṁ ~e daṇḍaṁ gahetuṁ, 439,10; —ifc a‑°; añña‑°; attha‑°; adhi­gama‑°; anag­gha­na‑°; anāgata-bhaya‑°; aniyyāni­ka‑°; aneka‑°; antara‑°; aparicatta‑° (Sadd 692,13); appa­tiṭ­ṭhita‑°; abhāyana‑°; abhibhavana‑°; aro­dana‑°; avaññā‑°; aviruddha‑°; asaṁ­va­raṇa‑°; asabhi‑°; asocana‑°; āgama­na‑°; uttara‑°; upā­dāna‑° (Abh-ṭ on Abh 92); ekaṁsika‑°; kattabba‑° (Ja VI 453,3); kamma‑°; kalaha‑°; jarā-maraṇa‑°; takka­gāha‑°; taṇhā‑°; dukkha‑°; dhamma‑°; nik‑°; niyyānika‑°; paccak­khāna‑°; paṭirūpa‑°; padhāna‑°; param-parā‑ ; parābha­va‑°; paricatta‑°; balava‑°; maraṇa‑°; loka-sammuti‑°; vi­muc­cana‑°; virāga‑°; visesa‑°; vuḍḍhi‑°; sa‑° (sa-kāraṇaṁ sa-upamaṁ katvā, Dhp-a III 425,21); sammā‑°; sahakā­ri‑°; sāsana-ṭṭhiti‑°; sobhana‑°.