Truncation sign : * (asterisk) - e.g. kamm*

Type the letters without dots and accents - e.g. to search 'kalyāṇa' type kalyana. Read more …


kathaṁ

, 2ind. [5ka (q.v.) + thaṁ; Ai.Gr. III §§ 219
d), 258 c); Pischel § 114], interrogative adverb of
manner:
1.a.(i) in what way, how; ~ is often followed by
the particles
nu, nu + kho, pana, su (cf. sa. svid), and
hi; for examples of which, v. infra; a.(ii) kathaṁ + iva:
how (rare; cf. identical sa. usage); a.(iii) why (rare);
2.a.(i) in canonical text ~aṁ + the particles hi + nāma
is almost invariably constructed with a finite verb in the
future, when censure/reproach is implied: "how could
you ... I"
(extremely common, especially in the Vinaya);
there are a few occurrences of kathaṁ hi nāma + pot.
(q.v. infra; cf. 2.b.) used in the same sense; the few
recorded examples of
kathaṁ hi nāma + aor. are ex-
ceptional;
kathaṁ hi nāma + pres. is characteristic of
postcanonical pa.; or
a.(ii) when wonder/amaze-
ment/disbelief
(v. gramm. lit. infra) is implied (rare):
"how can it be that... ?;
b. when the speaker is talking to
or reproaching himself
~aṁ hi nāma is invariably con-
structed with a finite verb in the pot. mood
(rare): "why
should ...?"; cf.
Pāṇ III 3 (142+) 144; v. O. H. PIND,
Studies in the Pāli Grammarians I, JPTS XIII 1989: 58-
60; c. ~aṁ ~aṁ nāma + ger.: how could (something)
possibly ...
(rare); when used in cpd.s (for examples of
which, v. infra
), ~ sometimes assumes the value of the
interrogative pronoun
kiṁ; cf. similar sa. usage;
gramm. lit.: kimimehi thaṁ. kiṁ ima ice etehi thaṁ-
paccayo hoti pakāravacanatthe. ko pakāro: ~aṁ;
kaṁ pakāraṁ: ~aṁ +, Kacc-v ad Kacc 401= Sadd
805,24 ≠ Mogg IV 121; cf. Sadd 675,21 foll.; — sandhi
forms:
a. ~aṁ + ahaṁ > ~âhaṁ; ~âhaṁ bhante
Rāhulakumāraṁ pabbājemī ti, Vin I 82,17; 354,18; II
256,37; Ja I 93,11; Nidd I 59,19 foll.; b. ~aṁ + V > ~' +
V; this type of sandhi is probably m.c; ~' eko ramasī
araññe, Ja V 506,16* (= ~aṁ eko, 506,18'); sa ~' ajja
anuccaṅgī pathaṁ gacchati pattikā, VI 500,14* foll.
(= ~aṁ ajja, 501,26'); — 1.a.(i) exeg.: -an ti ayaṁ
ākārapucchā: kenâkārena, Sv 248,31; ~an ti kenâkā-
rena ... kasmā, kuto, kena ppakārena tvaṁ ṭhito'
hosi, Th-a III 57,12,16 (ad Th 866); — ~aṁ dukkhā
pamuccati, Sn 170; ~aṁ upapajjati Brahmalokaṁ
jutīmā, 508; ~aṁ na viggayha janena kayirā, 844;
~añ carahi jānemu disvā Buddho ti brāhmaṇa, 999;
~añ ca bhikkhave atthataṁ hoti kaṭhinaṁ, Vin I
255,7; ~aṁ bhāvito ca ... ~añ ca bahulīkato, III 70,28;
~aṁ jānemu taṁ mayaṁ, D II 240,11* ~añ carahi
taṁ deva samudācarāmī ti, 192,15; idaṁ bhante
~aṁ, III 285,7; ~aṁ na hāyeyyuṁ pare ti, 165,17;
~aṁ ṭhito tvaṁ, M II 99,27* = Th 866 (Be so; Ee kas-
mā); imassa pana ... bhāsitassa ~aṁ attho daṭṭhab-
bo, M II 69,4 = III 10,6; ambho ~aṁ so puriso, 165,29;
~aṁ ca ... atītaṁ anvāgameti, 188,1; ~aṁ tvam an-
igho bhikkhu, S I 54,24* foll.; idaṁ bhante ~aṁ, A III
361,27 = V 349,14; ~aṁ bhāvitā ca maraṇasati, IV
320,5; ~aṁ mokkho bhavissatī ti, Ja II 77,24*; ~aṁ
tattha gamissāmī ti, 159,13; ariyo hi ariyassa ~aṁ na
dajjā, III 81,11*; Brāhmaṇo ca ~aṁ jahe sabbadham-
māna pāragū, 19,24*; ~aṁ pamokkho āsi, IV 419,20*;
~aṁ jānemu taṁ mayaṁ, V 156,10* ≠ 44,24* = VI
13,14* qu. Sadd 675,22; — ~an + nu: ~an nu dhīrehi
paveditaṁ taṁ, Sn 838; ~an nu dāni puccheyyaṁ
puthū samaṇabrāhmaṇe, 190 = S I 215,8*; ~aṁ nu
tvaṁ mārisa ogham atari ti, 1,14; ~an nu sākhā-
migaṁ dakkhissāma, Ja III 99,7* (= kena nu kho
upāyena, 99,9'); ~an nu bhagavā ... Kappassa rama-
ti assame, 144,9* (= kena nu kho upāyena, 144,11');
144,25*; te ~an nu karissanti, 330,24*; ~aṁ nv ayaṁ
... hatthattham āgañchi, IV 459,27,30*; ~an nu daha-
ro jaññā, V 62,19*; ~an nu te laddhaṁ idaṁ vimā-
naṁ, 178,29* = VI 320,6*; — ~aṁ + nu kho: ~aṁ nu
kho amhehi uposatho kātabbo, Vin I 124,32 ≠ 125,12;
~aṁ nu kho mayā paṭipajjitabban ti, 83,24; ~an nu
kho bho abhisaññānirodho hotī ti, D I 180,1; ~aṁ nu
kho ahosiṁ atītam addhānaṁ, M I 8,6 foll. = S II
26,30 ≠ M I 265,3 foll.; ~aṁ nu kho bhante sakkāya-
diṭṭhi hotī ti, S III 102,5*; ~aṁ nu kho gāmaṇi
Nigaṇṭho Nātaputto sāvakānaṁ dhammaṁ desetī
ti, IV 317,24; —~aṁ + pana: ~aṁ pana bhante deva-
tānaṁ adhippāyo, D II 163,16; — ~aṁ + su: ~aṁ su
taratī oghaṁ, Sn 183 foll. = S I 214,25* foll.; ta-y-idaṁ
~aṁ sū ti, M I 400,18 = S IV 228,16; —~aṁ + hi: ~aṁ
hi Bhagavā tuyhaṁ, I 121,18*; ~aṁ hi yajamānassa,
~aṁ ijjhati dakkhiṇā, 175,22*; ~aṁ h' ime jhāyantī ti,
A III 355,9; ~aṁ hi mūlaṁ adisvā rukkhaṁ jaññā
patiṭṭhitaṁ, Ja II 346,17*; ~aṁ hi āgamma, III 24,24*;
~aṁ hi dānaṁ aphalaṁ vadeyya, IV 339,22*; —
1.a.(ii) nibbedhapadaṭṭhānaṁ pahāya ghoraṁ ta-
paṁ -am ivā ti so tvaṁ brūhi, Vjb 404,6*; — 1.a.(iii)
āraññakassa isino ... kicchā kataṁ udapānaṁ ~aṁ
samma avāhayī ti, Ja II 354,25* (= kimatthāya,
355,3'); — ifc. yathā-° (D I 51,25; II 334,15; S I 1,16; A
II 163,25 [ed.s sometimes print ~as two words]); —
2.a.(i) exeg.: ~aṁ hi nāma so bhikkhave moghapu-
riso sabbamattikāmayaṁ kuṭikaṁ karissatī (= Vin
III 42,13-14 qu. Mogg-v ad Mogg VI 3) ti idaṁ atītat-
the anāgatavacanaṁ akāsī ti vuttaṁ hoti; tassa lak-
khaṇaṁ saddasatthato pariyesitabbaṁ, Sp 288,12-15;
gramm. lit.: ~aṅ hi nāmā ti nindāvacane apadis-
sanatthe nipātasamudāyo, Sadd 818,8 (ad sutta 893);
name garahāvimhayesu. nāmasadde nipāte sati
garahāyaṁ vimhaye ca gamyamāne ssatyādayo
honti: ... ~aṁ hi nāma so ... kuṭikaṁ karissati (=
Vin III 42,12-14), Mogg-v ad Mogg VI 3 (Mogg-p ad
loc. claims that it is the particle
nāma which entails fu-
ture of the verb; cf. the discussion at
Sadd 818,14 foll. re-
jecting this view
); — ~aṁ hi + pot.: ~aṁ hi duṭṭhena
asampaduṭṭhaṁ suddhaṁ asuddhena samaṁ ka-
reyyā ti, Sn 90; puna Aṅkuro ... taṁ seṭṭhiṁ gara-
hanto "~aṁ hi dānaṁ dadamāno kareyya ..." gā-
thaṁ āha, Pv-a 125,17 (ad Pv 288 = ~aṁ hi nāma,
Pv-a 125,20); — ~aṁ hi nāma + fut.: ~añ hi nāma
chabbaggiyā bhikkhū apaṭiññāya bhikkhūnaṁ
kammāni karissanti, Vin II 83,13; ~aṁ hi nāma
samaṇā Sakyaputtiyā kulesu viññāpetvāviññāpetvā
bhuñjissanti, 196,13; manussā vipācanti : ~aṁ hi
nāma bhikkhunī kulaṁ maccharāyissatī ti, IV
312,17; ~aṁ hi nāma sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ
puṭṭho samano vikkhepaṁ vyākarissatī ti, D I 59,16;
118,19; ~aṁ hi nāma ayoniso aggiṁ gavesissatī ti, II
341,27; ~aṁ hi nāma ... gūthaṁ harissasī ti, 347,22;
~aṁ hi nāma ... evaṁ vakkhati, A III 337,28 (= kena
kāraṇena, Mp III 366,6) = 338,15; Ud 44,27; —~aṁ hi
nāma + aor.: ~aṁ hi nāma bhikkhuniyo uddositaṁ
acchindāpesuṁ, Vin IV 224,14; ~aṁ hi nāma evarū-
paṁ pi dhammakathaṁ jānanto ... upaṭṭhahantā-
naṁ manussānaṁ ekam pi dhammapadaṁ na ka-
thesī ti, Dhp-a II 95,20; 241,8; — ~aṁ hi nāma + pres:
~aṁ hi nāma tvaṁ ... Devadattassa bhattaṁ bhuñ-
jasī ti, Ja I 186,31; ~aṁ hi nāma sabbaññū samano
attano sāvake dhammadāyāde ... kātuṁ na sakkotī
ti, Ps I 92,11; — 2.a.(ii) ~aṁ hi nāma tāva mahato
bhikkhusaṅghassa aḍḍhateḷasānaṁ bhikkhusatā-
naṁ n' eva khipitasaddo bhavissati, D I 50,5; accha-
riyaṁ vata bho abbhutaṁ vata bho. (so punctuate)
~aṁ hi nāma satthari sammukkhībhūte sāvako
dhammaṁ desessatī ti, S I 156,7; — 2.b. atha kho sa
bhikkhunī ~aṁ hi nāma bhikkhuniyo nâgacchey-
yun ti bhikkhuniyo upasaṁkamitvā, Vin IV 312,9;
~aṁ hi nāma evaṁ vadeyya, D II 319,16; — ~aṁ hi
nāma mādiso samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā vijite
vasantaṁ haneyya vā bandheyya vā pabbājeyya
vā, Vin III 44,15; ~aṁ hi nāma mādiso samaṇaṁ vā
brāhmaṇaṁ vā vijite vasantaṁ apasādetabbaṁ
maññeyyā ti, D I 53,8 = 54,28 = 57,7 = 58,7 = 59,19;
~aṁ hi nāma mādiso viññū samanassa Gotamassa
subhāsitaṁ subhāsitato nâbbhanumodeyyā ti,
190,12 = 191,9; ~aṁ hi nāma mādiso pubbe animan-
tito āsane nisīditabbaṁ maññeyyā ti M II 158,17; —
c. ~aṁ ~aṁ nāmâyaṁ bhante Ānanda bhagavatā
dhammo desito aññeyyo, yatra hi nāma ..., A III
347,24 foll. (= kena kena kāraṇena, Mp III 374,3,10) =
348,6 = 349,1 = V 137',25 foll. (reading kathaṁkathā);
— °-sadda, m., the word kathaṁ; Sadd 675,27; —
~-yoga, m., construction with the word kathaṁ; ~ena
na sakkhissasī ti anāgatavacanaṁ kataṁ. nāmasad-
dayogenā ti ca vadanti, Sp-ṭ II 22,17 (ad Vin III 20,21:
~aṁ hi nāma ... na sakkhissasi) = Vmv I 103,29; —
~añ-hi-nāma(n), n., (the sentence complement) kathañ
hi nāma; ~āssa abhāvato, Sadd 818,12 (v. infra); —
~-yoga, m., construction with (the sentence comple-
ment
) kathañ hi nāma; ~enâtīte 'nāgatassêva payo-
go ... ~enā ti kimatthaṁ: -an nu tvaṁ mārisa o-
gham atari (= S I 1,14) ti ādisu kathañ-hi-nāmassa
abhāvato atīte anāgatassa viya payogo na hotī ti
dassanatthaṁ ...amhehi pana daḷhīkaraṇatthaṁ
~enā ti vuttaṁ, Sadd 818,6,11,17; — ~-sadda, m., the
expression kathañ hi nāma; ~assa yogena atīte anā-
gatassa iva payogo hoti, Sadd 818,6; — ~añ-hi-sad-
da, m., the expression kathañ hi; Sadd 818,14.[[side 127]]