Truncation sign : * (asterisk) - e.g. kamm*

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5

ka

, mf(~ā)n(~iṁ). [cf. sa. kas, kā, kiṁ], interroga-
tive pronoun:
1. who, which, what; often used in a
pregnant sense: what sort of, what kind of
(= kīdisa;
cf. Nidd I 472,7; used adjectivally and substantially;
the inflection of ~ is based upon the pronominal
stems
ka and ki resulting in a series of variants of
individual caseforms; cf., e.g.,
(gen.) ~assa : ~issa;
(abl.) ~asmā, ~amhā : ~ismā; (loc.) ~asmiṁ, ~amhi:
~ismiṁ, ~imhi; v. GEIGER § 111; Mittelindisch § 379;
for a complete paradigm recording canonical and
post-canonical case forms of
~a (m.), cf. Sadd
278,20-22; ~ā (f.) 279,11-12; ~iṁ (n.) 279,5-6; — for the
adverbial usage of
~iṁ, v. s.v.; for the usage of ~iṁ
in cpd.s and for the usage of the pronominal stems
kad-/kā- in cpd.s v. s.vv. kiṁ, kad, and kā (cf. ku-);
for idiomatic uses of ~: 2.a. (instr.) ~ena
(whereby, hence): why ?; b. (gen.) ~issa: why; for
what reason ?; this usage is presumably idiomatic
for
~issa hetu [< hetoḥ or hetau], q.v. infra; it would
seem to be restricted to
Vin and Mil (v. infra); c.
(abl.) ~asmā (because of what, hence): why ?
(common; contrasts with ~ismā which is never used
in this sense
); d. (loc. [= nimittasaptamī]): for the
sake of what; on what ground: why ?
(rare); 3.a.: ~o
pana vāda: what sort of talk; hence: why talk about
(with instr. or gen.); b.(i) m. nom. sg. ~o + attha
(with instr.): what is the purpose/use of; cf. sa.
usage;
b.(ii) n. nom. sg. kiṁ constructed with a
noun in the instr.: what is the purpose/use of A, i.e.,
what is the use of, what purpose does it serve that ...
(cf. sa. usage); ct.s interpret this usage of ~iṁ as a
negation
(= paṭikkhepavacana) equivalent to alaṁ;
v. infra; with instr. + dat./gen. of pers.: what is the
use of A to B, hence
(according to the context): what
does B have to do with A, what purpose does A
serve B, what does B gain from A; or simply: why
should B bother about A ?;
c.(i): ~o/~e ca ... ~o/~e
ca: on the one hand, what sort (of person, etc., is A),
on the other hand, what sort
(of person, etc., is B);
this idiom is used in statements about persons or
the like, when they are considered incompatible;

Trenckner suggests tentatively the derivation ko <
*kva, referring to the usage of sa. kva ... kva (q.v.);
however, the syntactical pattern of the examples in

which ko ca occurs would seem to exclude such der-
ivation; cf. the "Eastern" m. nom. sg. forms
ke ca
and the m. nom. pl. forms kā ca in the examples
quoted infra sub
3.c.(i), q.v.; c.(ii) ~o ca used as a
conjunction constructed with the future; this usage
would seem to be a specialized usage of
3.c.(i),
q.v.; 4. ko ca ko ca (distributive usage): who is each
one individually I in particular; only recorded in

Mil; — ~ is often found in composition with the
interrogative particles
su, nu + kho, and the particle
pana [< sa. punar; cf. CDIAL 2575], which cliticise on
the pronoun;
sandhi forms: (i) ~o + vowel > ~v
+ vowel (in some cases with lengthening of the fol-
lowing vowel, when it is not followed by geminate
consonants
); cf. Mittelindisch § 267-268; K.R.
Norman, An Aspect of External Sandhi in Pāli,
Buddhist Studies
(Bukkyō Kenkyū) Vol. XVII 1988:
89-95; — exeg. lit.: ~v āyaṁ abalabalo viya, Vin III
181,6 (= ~o ayaṁ, Sp 622,16); akāmakaraṇīyasmiṁ ~v
idha (so probably read with Be; Ee kuv' idha) pāpena
lippati, Ja V 237,14* (= ~o idha, 237,23'); imassa ~v
attho ti, A III 362,21 (= imassa bhāsitassa ~o attho,
Mp III 382,17; ~v attho jīvitena me, Vv 830 (= ~o attho
[v.l. k' attho], Vv-a 212,20); (ii) ~iṁ + vowel > ~y +
lengthening of the following vowel, when it is not
followed by geminate consonants
(v. infra); ~e +
vowel > ~y + lengthening of the vowel before gemi-
nate consonants; cf. Mittelindisch
§ 267-268; K.R.
Norman, An Aspect of External Sandhi in Pāli,
Buddhist Studies
(Bukkyō Kenkyū) Vol. XVII 1988:
89-95; — exeg. lit.: ky āhaṁ karissāmī, Vin IV 162,1
(= ~iṁ ahaṁ karissāmi, Sp 881,9); ~y āhaṁ devānaṁ
akaraṁ, Ja III 206,21 (= ~iṁ nāma ahaṁ akariṁ,
206,23'); ~y āssa (v.l. ~y assa) vyappathayo assu, Sn
961 (= kīdisāni tassa vacanāni assu, Pj II 572,18; cf.
Nidd I 472,7: ~y āssa); — gramm. lit.: lopo. nig-
gahītassa lopo hoti vā kvaci: ~y āhaṁ < ~iṁ ahaṁ
(cf. Vin III 162,1, q.v. supra); ~y āhaṁ devānaṁ
akaraṁ (= Ja III 206,21), Mogg-v ad Mogg I 39; te-me-
pabbatyādīnam esa yo vinā yekārena: ... ty āhaṁ
evaṁ vadeyyaṁ (= M I 13,1); adhigato kho my āyaṁ
dhammo (= Vin I 4,33) ... ~y āhaṁ (?; cf. supra); ~y
āssa vyappathayo assu (= Sn 961), Sadd 615,9 (sutta
43; "[in some cases] y is substituted for the e of te,
me, and pabbate, etc., except in the case of [the rela-
tive pronoun
] ye [= m. nom. pl.]"); — Rem.a.:
there are no recorded ex.s of the derivation ~y āhaṁ
< ~e ahaṁ as presupposed by Sadd; — b.: although
it is possible that the abovementioned sandhi forms
represent nonhistorical backformations, the fact that
Buddhaghosa and other ct.s comment upon some of
them would indicate that they antedate the ct.s;

(iii) kiṁ + sa/su (< su < *svid) > kissa/kissu
(rare); — exeg. lit.: tattha ~issā ti ~im assa (= variant
of assu; on which, cf. CPD s.v. assu), Pv-a 199,14 (ad
Pv 458); ~issâbhilepanaṁ brūsī ti ~iṁ assa lokasssa
abhilepanaṁ vadesi, Pj II 586,1 (ad Sn 1032); —
gramm. lit. on the inflection of ~: (i) on the formal
difference between m. sg. nom. in
o and e [= Māga-
dhism
]): rūpaviseso p' ettha veditabbo: "~e gan-
dhabbe ca rakkhase nāge kimpurise ca mānuse ...
me bhattā bhavissati" (= Ja VI 265,5); "~e ca chave
Pāṭikaputte, ~ā ca Tathāgatānaṁ arahantānaṁ Sam-
māsambuddhānaṁ āsādanā" ti (= D III 24,22) pāḷi-
dassanato. yasmā pana "~e gandhabbe ca rakkhase
nāge" ti ādisu pāḷisu ~e ti paccattavacanaṁ ekāran-
tam pi dissati, tasmā ~e ti rūpabhedo c' ettha fteyyo,
Sadd 278,25; 651,3 (ad sutta 277]; — (ii) on f. nom. pl.
~āyo: ettha pana ~āyo ti padassa atthibhāve "kayo
amoghā gacchantī (= Ja VI 26,14) ti nidassanaṁ daṭ-
ṭhabbaṁ. idaṁ itthiliṅgaṁ, Sadd 279,13-14); — (iii)
on the interpretation of ~assā (= f. abl. sg.): ~assâ-
haṁ ~ena hāyāmī (= Vin III 132,27) ti ettha ~assā ti
pañcamiyā rūpaṁ, (~assā ti) pañcamiyā rūpe diṭṭhe
yeva sabbassā katarissā ti ādīni pañcamiyā rūpāni
pāḷiyaṁ anāgatāni pi diṭṭhāni yeva nāma, Sadd
217,24; — 1. used substantially: (m. nom. sg.) ~o
sū 'dha taratī oghaṁ, Sn 173; ~o hi nātho paro siyā,
Dhp 160; ~o nu hāso, Dhp 146 (cf. ms. Ba kin nu hāso;
P-Dhp 232; G-Dhp 143, Uv I 4, and Mvu III 376,12*
read ko nu) au. Ja V 11,25; ~o nu kho bhante hetu ~o
paccayo yena ... ,Vin III 8,1 ("what is the reason why
..."
) ≠ D II 160,10 ≠ M I 25,9; ~o hi bhante vaṇṇâra-
hassa vaṇṇaṁ na karissatī ti, M I 387,4 ("who would
not praise the one who is worthy of praise"
); (f.
nom. sg.
) āturānaṁ hi ~ā niddā sallaviddhāna
ruppataṁ, Sn 331; ~ā tuyhaṁ rati bhavissati, Thī 372;
~ā usuyyā vijānatan ti, Vin I 43,28; ~ā nu tvaṁ idha
tiṭṭhasī ti, Pv 95 ("who are you standing here" ?); ~ā
nu seyyasī, Ja V 394,28*; (m. acc. sg.) ~aṁ khettajinaṁ
vadanti buddha, Sn 523; ~aṁ 'si tvaṁ āvuso uddissa
pabbajito, Vin I 8,14 = 40,1 = M I 170,36; (f. acc. sg.)
cūḷāsītisahassāni sabbā Jīvasanāmikā etamh' āḷāha-
ne daḍḍhā tāsaṁ -am anusocasi, Thī 51; (n. acc. sg.)
samādhiñ ca virādhenti, ~iṁ su raṭṭhaṁcariyā karis-
sati, Th 37; ~im upādāya ~im abhinivissa evam diṭ-
ṭhi upajjati, S III 202,4; ~im icchasī, Ja V 476,27*;
(mfn. instr. sg.) ~ena 'ssu nivuto loko, Sn 1032;
~ena ādittaṁ, Vin I 34,21,29; ~ena, Vin I 73,29; (mfn.
abl. sg.
) ~ismā (Ee so; Ee confirmed by northern
Thai ms.s against sgh. ms.s
~issā; cf. O. v. HINÜBER,
Sprachgeschichte, AWL 1988 no. 8: 20 foll.) na pari-
muccatī ti, S I 37,22*; ~issā (so read with Sgh. ms.s;
reading confirmed by northern Thai ms.s against the
reading
~ismā of Burmese ms.s followed by Ee)
bhīyo na vijjati, S I 39,3; (mfn. dat./gen. sg.) ~assa
brāhmaṇa tvaṁ bhīto, Thī 237; ~ass' indriyāni sam-
anthaṁ gatāni, Th 205; ~assa nu kho ahaṁ paṭha-
maṁ dhammaṁ deseyyaṁ, Vin I 7,13 = D II 40,4 = M
I 169,31; (n. dat./gen. sg.) ~issa loko upādāya, Sn 168
(kissa loko ti upayogatthe sāmivacanaṁ, kiṁ upā-
dāya loko ti saṁkhaṁ gacchatī ti ayaṁ hi ettha
adhippāyo, Pj II 210,26-28) = S I 41,3; ~issa phalaṁ
nam' etan ti, Ja II 104,22; so 'haṁ ~issa nu bhāyissaṁ
(so read; Ee ~issânu-; cf. Mittelindisch § 379), VI
302,12*; (mfn. loc. sg.) ~ismiṁ loko samuppanno,
Sn 168; ~imhi tattha manaṁ nivesaye, Thī 391 = 392;
~imhi nu kho ahaṁ paṭigaṇheyyaṁ manthañ ca
madhupiṇḍikañ cā ti, Vin I 4,15 ("in which ...");
~imhi nu kho ahaṁ paṁsukūlaṁ parimaddeyyan ti,
Vin I 28,31 ("on what ...") ≠ 29,18; 28,35; atha ~ismiṁ
pana vo Vāseṭṭha viggaho, D I 237,7; ~imhi nu kho
sati jarāmaraṇaṁ hoti, D II 31,5 = S II 5,17 = S II 10,9;
cetanaṁ pana gahapati Nigaṇṭho Nātaputto ~ismiṁ
paññāpeti, M I 377,8 ("to what householder does Nā-
taputta the Jain ascribe intention"); (m. nom. pl.) ~e
nu kho te Ānanda Pāṭaligāme nagaraṁ māpentī ti,
Vin I 228,37; ~e pan' ete Ānanda uccāsaddā mahā-
saddā kevaṭṭā maṅñe macchaṁ vilopā ti, Ud 24,26;
~e nu bhoto pasaṁsiyā, Ja III 311,20*; ~e nu tumhe, V
136,25*; (m. gen. pl.) ~esan nu ajja ārāme daharā
vuddhā ca acchare, Ja VI 45,30*; ~esaṁ diva ca ratto ca
sadā puññaṁ pavaḍḍhati, S I 33,16*; (mfn. loc. pl.)
~esu 'dha araṇā loke ... ~e 'dha icchaṁ parijānanti, S
I 44,26*; ~esu na mānaṁ kayirātha, ~esu assa (sgh.
ms.
kesvassa) sagāravo, S I 178,22* au. Th-a II 181,4*
(reading kesu vāssa); — used adjectivally: (m. acc.
sg.
) ~am attham abhisandhāya ... imaṁ dukkhaṁ
titikkhasi, Ja II 386,4*; ~aṁ kālaṁ atthi, ~aṁ kālaṁ
n' atthī ti, Kv 262,32; (mfn. instr. sg.) saṁkhārā
vibhavissanti: tattha atha ~ena nu vaṇṇena agāran te
na vijjatī ti, Ja III 73,17*; ~en' attanā gacchati brahma-
lokaṁ, Sn 508; (f. instr. sg.) ~āya nu 'ttha bhikkhave
etarahi kathāya sannisinnā, D I 2,24 = II 1,16 = M I
514,20 = II 2,17 = III 8,25 = 88,27 = 119,5 = Ud 11,11;
(mfn. gen. sg.) ~issa nu kho me idaṁ kammassa
phalaṁ, ~issa kammassa vipāko, It 15,16; (m. abl.
sg.
) evam eva kho mahārāja yasmā ~asmā (w.r. for
tasmā ?; cf. ms. B and two northern Thai ms.) ce pi
kulā agarismā anagāriyam pabbajito hoti, S I 99,22;
(mfn. loc. sg.) ~ismiṁ vatthusmiṁ, Vin V 1,6;
~asmin nu raṭṭhe tava jātibhūmi, Ja V 476,27*; -amhi
(v.l. ~im-) kale tayā dhīra patthitā bodhi-m-uttamā,
Bv I 75; Vv 207 = 294 = 659 = 664; ~asmiṁ padese, Pv
552; ~imhi kālamhi paggāho ~imhi kale viniggaho,
Nidd I 508,13,14; (n. acc. pl.) ~āni kammāni brūhayaṁ
naro, Sn 324; ~āni kammāni, Ja IV 197,12*; (m. instr.
pl.
) so ... ~ehi anusayehi gaccheyya ratto ti vā
duṭṭho ti vā mūḷho, Nidd I 81,4 = Nidd I 111,20
(kappeyya) = Nidd I 317,5 (veddheyya); — 2.a.
Rohiṇi dāni pucchāmi ~ena te samaṇā piyā, Thī 272;
~en' ambo kaṭukapphalo ti, Ja II 106,2*; ~ena t'
etādiso vaṇṇo ~ena te idha-m-ijjhati uppajjanti ca te
bhogā ye keci manaso piyā, Vv 2 = 9 = Pv 1977 105;
— 2.b. ~issa tvaṁ āvuso evaṁ ciraṁ akāsi, Vin I
96,20; ~issâyaṁ darika rodah ti, 208,12; II 55,22; ~issa
tvaṁ Sāriputta idha nisinno ti, 160,34; III 135,28 =
135,32; IV 79,28; 114,12; ~issa pana tvaṁ Nanda an-
abhirato brahmacariyaṁ carasi, Ud 22,12; Ud 59,29;
(cf. O. v. HINÜBER, Schrifl. AWL 1989 no. 11: 52 no.
109); Mil 47,21; 48,3; 65,17; 99,13; cf. taṁ ~issa hetu, D I
18,17 = 14,4 = II 14,30 = III 29,17 = M I 31,1 = 178,17 =
310,19 -S II 24,24 = IE 153,7 = V 10,23 = A I 8,5 = 32,16 =
III 181,11 = It 91,5 = Mil 101,4; — 2. c. ~asmā na ekaṁ
samaṇā vadanti, Sn 883 (~asmā ti ~asmā kiṁkaraṇā
... kiṁnidānā + Nidd I 291,23); ~asmā na paridevesi
evarūpe mahabbhaye, Th 706; Th 44; ~asmā na san-
tappasi sokakāle, Ja III 153,15* qu. Nidd I 436,15; Vin I
350,2; Vṁ III 148,31; ~asmā ... Bhagavatā avyākatan ti,
D I 188,32; D II 282,22; D III 114,15; D III 136,18; ~asmā
pan' ayye assāsapassāsā kāyasaṅkhāro, M I 301,22 = S
IV 293,20; M I 431,23; M II 159,30; M III 154,16; ~asmā c'
etam bhikkhave mayā anakkhātaṁ, S V 438,6,15; A III
181,7; 226,8,12,15; ~asmā nu kāyā anadhivaraṁ
upāgamī ti, Vv 138; — 2.d. ~imh' eso mahato
ghoso, ~ā nu game va kīḷiyā, Ja VI 56,22*; ~ismiṁ me
Sivayo kuddhā ... ~asmā pabbājayanti man ti,
492,34*; — 3.a. ~o pana vādo kāyena vācāya anu-
vidhīyanāsu, M I 43,27 (yā pan' etā kāyena vācāya
anuvidhīyanā ... tattha vādo yeva ~o, Ps I 191,11); ~o
pana vādo sattahi ratanehi catuhi ca iddhīhī ti, III
177,12; ~o pana vādo pañcahi nīvaraṇehi, S V 127,27;
~o pana vādo ye nam bahulīkaronti, A I 10,22 (ye
pana idaṁ mettacittaṁ bahulaṁ āsevanti ... te
amoghaṁ raṭṭhapiṇḍaṁ paribhuñjantī ti ettha vat-
tabbam eva ~iṁ, Mp I 72,9) = 38,21 (ye naṁ
paṭhamajjhānaṁ bahulīkaronti ... tesu vattabbam
eva n' atthi, Mp II 41,15); A I 43,10; ~o pana vādo pade-
sarajjassa, It 15,14 ("why talk of a limited kingdom
?"
); — 3.b.(i) ~o attho supitena vo, Sn 331; uṭṭhehi
Kaṇha, kiṁ sesi, ~o attho supinena te, Ja IV 84,22* =
Pv 207; ~v attho jīvitena me, Vv 830; — 3.b.(ii)
~ena lokasmi ~iṁ siyā, Th 986 = Th 987; ~iṁ pana vo
kumārā itthiyā, Vin I 23,14; -in nu me buddhena, Vin
III 27,14 (cf. 27,12: alaṁ me buddhena; = ~iṁ mayhaṁ
kiccaṁ ~iṁ karaṇīyaṁ ~iṁ sādhetabban ti attho, Sp
250,27); ~iṁ pana tayā ... adātukāmena pavāritena
yaṁ tvaṁ pavāretvā na desi, Vṁ III 211,11 = IV 102,24;
~iṁ pan' imehi khuddânukkhuddakehi sikkhāpa-
dehi uddiṭṭhehi, IV 143,6; Vakkali ~iṁ te imina
pūtikāyena diṭṭhena, S III 120,27; alan ti
paṭikkhepavacanaṁ. ~iṁ imina ti attho, Mp IV 103,6
(ad A IV 188,1); ~iṁ te dārūhi, Ja V 250,3; ~iṁ tum-
hākaṁ imassa sīsacchedanena, Mil 110,25; 156,20; ~iṁ
pana mayhaṁ tayā gatena vā agatena vā, Dhp-a IV
61,5; — 3.c.(i) ~e ca muṇḍakā ... ~ā ca tevijjānaṁ
brāhmaṇānaṁ sākacchā, D I 103,16; ~o câhaṁ bho
Gotama sācariyako, ~ā ca anuttarā vijjā-
caraṇasampadā, D I 102,13-14; ~o câhaṁ ~o Sīho mi-
garājā, III 24,3 (Sv 828,12-18); ~e ca chave sigāle ~e
pana sīhanāde, 24,19 (cf. III 25,3 foll); ~o câhaṁ
bhante ~o ca ariyassa vinaye ... vohārasamucchedo,
M I 367,26; mayaṁ hi ... pubbe evaṁ jānāma: ~e ca
muṇḍakā ... ~e ca dhammassa aññātāro (so read), M
II 177,7; ~e ca muṇḍakā samaṇakā ~e ca, S I 184,12; A
III 349,7 = 351,17-18; ~o câhaṁ ~e ca (v.l. ~o [sic!]), Sv
283,21; ~o câhaṁ ~o ca hatthināgo, Mp V 68,5 (ad A V
202,24); — 3.c.(ii) ~o câhaṁ bho ~o ca samanassa
Gotamassa paññāveyyattiyaṁ jānissāmi, M I 175,23
("what sort of person am I that I ..."; = kena
kāraṇena, Ps II 196,9-12); ~o câhaṁ, bho, ~o ca
samanassa Gotamassa paññāveyyattiyaṁ jānissāmi,
II 209,1 = A III 237,6 (= ~ena kāraṇena jānissāmī ti, Mp
III 312,19); ~o câhaṁ, bho, ~o ca samaṇaṁ Gotamaṁ
pasaṁsissāmi, M II 209,6 = A III 237,10 (= kena
kāraṇena pasaṁsissāmi, Mp III 313,8); api c', Ānanda,
~e ca aññatitthiyaparibbājakā bālā avyattā ~e ca Ta-
thāgatassa mahākammavibhaṅgaṁ jānissanti, M III
209,10; — 4. satta te janā ti. ~o ca ~o ca mahārājā ti,
Mil 115,11,18 ("who is each one individually ?"); ~o
ca ~o ca bhante ti, Mil 291,3.