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1

upāsaka

, m. [ts.], 1. lay-follower, lay-devotee;
(Geiger, Culture of Ceylon § 199; Lamotte, Traité II 819
n. 1; Przyluski, BEFEO 32, 1932, 142 foll.), often
mentioned together with
upāsikā (abbreviated here ~ikā;
if same wording occurs for both, ~ikā is put in brackets
and quotations are not repeated s. v.
upāsikā); 2. servant;
— 1. on ~āse, Sn 376 v. Lüders, Beob. § 4; voc. ~a,
Ud 13,8; Dhp-a I 14,20; Vism 312,25; Thūp 78,10;
definitions: Sv 234,23 — 235,29 = Ps I 135,22 — 136,25
= Mp II 113,1 — 114,10 ≠ Sp 172,31 foll.; 253,24 foll.;
etym.:
upāsatī ti ~o, Sadd 865,21; Mp II 113,11;
Mhv-ṭ 308,23; ārāmagatā ~ā nāma nissaṭṭhakamman-
tā mahā-upāsakā honti, Ps I 147,26 ad M I 29,7; —
the u. forms one of the 4 parisā; Abh 415; cattāro
parisasobhaṇā bhikkhu . . . bhikkhunī . . . ~o . . .
~ikā, Vin V 126,21; gati bhikkhūnaṁ bhikkhunīnaṁ
~ānaṁ ~ikānaṁ, D III 264,15 = Kv 98,16; anāva-
ṭaṁ dvāraṁ . . . bhikkhūnaṁ bhikkhunīnaṁ ~ānaṁ
~ikānaṁ, M I 380,19; A III 43,2; buddho . . . mahā
'ssa hoti parivāro bhikkhū bhikkhuniyo ~ā ~ikāyo
devā manussa +, D III 148,19; ākiṇṇo viharāmi
bhikkhūhi bhikkhunīhi ~ehi ~ikāhi raññā (so read) +,
M II 8,32A 1279,14 ≠ Ud 41,6 (Ud-a 248,10);
M III lll,io; Paṭis II 86,17; u. in different enumera-
tions:
gihī vā ~o vā ārāmiko vā sāmaṇero vā, Sp
492,17; bhikkhu bhikkhunī sikkhamānā sāmaṇero
sāmaṇerī ~o ~ikā ti ete satta sahadhammacārino,
Ps II 8,28; — the first u.'s were dvevācika: te (i.e.
Tapussa and Bhallika) va loke paṭhamaṁ ~ā ahesuṁ
dvevācikā, Vin I 4,26; all others are tevācika: so
(i. e. the father of Yasa) va loke paṭhamaṁ ~o ahosi
tevāciko, Vin I 16,38; — the formula to become an
u.: ~aṁ mam bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ
saraṇaṁ gataṁ, Vin I 16,37 = M I 368,14 = A IV
186,10 = Ud 49,29 (Ud-a 288,13) = Sn 25,2 etc.;
same formula with
bhavaṁ Gotamo: D I 125,7 =
M III 7,9 = S V 126,6 etc.; same formula with bhagavā
and pl.: Vin I 4,25 ≠ A I 193,20 etc.; with bhavaṁ
Gotamo and pl.: D I 252,27 = M I 413,27 = Sn 55,1
etc.; same formula in sg. with bhavaṁ Ānando: D
I 210,13 ≠ A I 219,15; with bhavaṁ Udeno: M II
163,6; with bhavaṁ Kaccāno: M II 90,31A I 67,19
= S IV 121,9; with bhavaṁ Kassapo: D II 352,21;
with bhavaṁ Piṅgiyānī: A III 239,5; sabbe ~ā tuyhaṁ
pāṇena saraṇaṁ gatā, Dīp XIV 25; — Buddha and
u.: ~ā ārāmam āgacchanti dhammasavanāya, Vin
IV 15,26; Sn 384; ~ikā, Ja I 160,22; aham eva . . .
~ānaṁ (~ikānaṁ) dhammaṁ deseyyaṁ, M I 29,7;
A III 122,11; ācikkhiṁ ... ~ānam ~ikānaṁ, S II
107,2; ~ānaṁ ~ikānaṁ dhammaṁ bhaṇati, Nidd I
230,16 = 392,27; kālo ~ānaṁ (~ikānaṁ) (i.e.
tathāgataṁ dassanāya upasaṁkamituṁ), D II 144,31;
~ā ~ikāyo satthari sagāravā, A III 340,14; satthā
. . . ~aṁ ārabbha kathesi, Ja I 301,15 = III 403,3
Pv-a 160,29 ≠ Ja I 188,30; ~ā bhagavantaṁ van-
ditvā, Ud-a 71,4; bhagavā bhikkhūnañ c' eva ~ānañ
ca majjhe nisinno ativiya virocati, Sv 972,18 = Peṭ
240,1 (cf. Ñm, Peṭ-trsl. 318 n. 1002/3); — Āṭānāṭiyā
rakkhā . . . ~ānaṁ ~ikānaṁ, D III 203,2; dham-
mikaṁ rakkhávaraṇaguttiṁ saṁvidahitvā ~esu
(~ikāsu), A III 151,6; — attributes of u.: ~ā gihī
odātavasanā brahmacārino, M I 491,3 (~ikā ibid. 25);
tvaṁ kho 'si ~a katakalyāṇo, Vin III 72,5; ye gaha-
ṭṭhā puññakarā sīlavanto ~ā, S I 234,28*; Ap 56,8;
Ja VI 120,14*; ~o . . . sīlavā kalyāṇadhammo pari-
sasobhaṇo, A II 226,2 (~ikā) and ~o . . . dussīlo pāpa-
dhammo parisadussano, 225,30 (~ikā); ~o . . . sa-
ddhāsampanno . . . sīlasampanno . . . cāgasampanno,
IV 223,1; āyasmante ~e saddhe pasanne akkosāmi
paribhāsāmi, Vin II 295,15; saddho āsi ~o, Pv 329 =
352 = 471; examples of a saddha u. are Citta gahapati
and Hatthaka Āḷavaka, Khujjuttarā and Veḷukaṇṭa-
kiyā Nandamātā: A I 88,22 foll. = II 164,13 foll.;
~o . . . vyatto vinīto visārado bahussuto dhamma-
dharo dhammânudhammapatipanno saṁghaṁ so-
bheti, II 8,15 (~ikā); D II 138,18; Th 187; Vv 992;
saccapariyosāne ~o sotāpattiphale patiṭṭhāsi, Ja I
302,23 ≠ Pv-a 38,26; 151,1; — qualities of u.
enumerated: kittāvatā . . . ~o hoti . . . sīlavā . . .
attahitāya ca paṭipanno hoti parahitāya ca, A IV
220,20 — 221,25; pañcahi . . . dhammehi samannāgato
~o visārado hoti (visārado agāraṁ ajjhāvasati,
yathābhataṁ nikkhitto evaṁ sagge): pāṇātipātā,
adinnādānā, kāmesu micchācārā, musāvādā, surāme-
rayamajjapamādaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti, A III 203,16
— 204,23 (ibid. on opposite qualities; ~ikā, 276,10-24);
pañcahi . . . dhammehi samannāgato ~o upāsakara-
tanañ ca hoti °-padumañ ca °-puṇḍarīko ca, 206,14;
pane' imā . . . vaṇijjā ~ena akaraṇīyā (i. e. sattha-,
satta-, maṁsa-, majja-, visa-vaṇijjā), 208,14; ~o sīlavā
ti pañca vā dasa vā sīlāni gopayamāno, Sp 1330,36
foll. quoted Upāsak 193,19, cf. Mp IV 114,7; ~o
pañcasikkhāpadiko, Ud-a 115,11; satt' ime ...
dhammā ~assa parihānāya (aparihānāya) saṁvat-
tanti, A IV 25,10-26 (enum. ibid.) ; satt' imā . . . ~assa
vipattiyo . . . sampattiyo . . . parābhavā, 26,18 — 27,16
(enum. ibid.); aṭṭhahi . . . aṅgehi samannāgatassa
~assa ākaṅkhamāno saṅgho pattaṁ nikkujjeyya,
344,24 foll. (enum. ibid.); aṭṭhahi . . . dhammehi
samannāgatassa bhikkhuno ākaṅkhamānā ~ā appa-
sādaṁ pavedeyyuṁ, 345,18 foll. (enum. ibid.); dasa
~assa upāsakaguṇā, Mil 94,26 — 95,3; ~assa ... so
hi dasa sikkhāpadāni akhaṇḍaṁ rakkhitabbānī ti
khaṇḍane ādīnavaṁ dassetvā, Upāsak 175,8; relation
of
u. to vinaya-law: na ~o . . . saṁghaṁ bhindati
(~ikā), Vin II 204,7; chabbaggiyā bhikkhū ~e padaso
dhammaṁ vācenti, IV 14,17 (transgression of Pāc.
IV); ~assa sutaṁ (~ikāya), I 172,32 (valid for ṭhapana
of the pavāraṇā); — relation of the bhikkhu to the u.:
(bhikkhū) ~ehi asakkariyamānā, I 354,4; bhikkhu
. . . assa tibbaṁ hirottappaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ . . .
~esu ~ikāsu, A II 78,30; arahati ~o sotāpanno
bhikkhuṁ puthujjanaṁ abhivādetuṁ paccuṭṭhātuṁ,
Mil 164,5; A III 366,10; how an u. is to be addressed by
bhikkhus: Mp III 129,16-22 ad A II 132,22 (~ikā); —
u. utters a stanza in Th: Th-a II 255,10; — upāsaka
as a benefactor of the Buddhist saṁgha: aññataro ~o
Cīrāya bhikkhuniyā cīvaraṁ adāsi, S I 213,13; 213,7*
≠ Thīlll; aññatarena ~ena ... bhikkhusaṁgho
. . . bhattena nimantito, Ud 16,31; sāmaṇerassa niba-
ddhūpaṭṭhāko ~o, Dhp-a II 93,20; ~o satthu ...
adāsi, Pv-a 61,20; 54,10; — names of u., cf. lists at
A
I 26,1-15; D II 92,1-9; some additional names are
given here:
Ambasakkhara, Pv 593; Ariṭṭha, A III
451,17; Ariya, Dhp-a III 397,13; Icchānaṅgalaka,
Ud 13,3; Uttara, Pv 329; Udena, Vin I 139,6; Gavesin,
A III 215,12; Mp III 304,25; Cakkana, As 103,7 =
Ps I 203,31; Candanaṅgalika, S I 81,5; Citta, Āḷavaka,
Ap 429,30; Chattapāṇi, Dhp-a I 380,8; Ja I 381,20;
Tapassa (Tapussa), Upāsak 131,22; Dīghāvu, S V
344,11; Dhammadinna, V 407,1 (Spk III 291,3);
Dhammika, Sn 66,7; Dhp-a I 109,3; 112,2; Nandiya,
Vv 596; Bhaṇḍuka, Sp 70,1 = Thūp 43,29 ≠ Sās 17,2
≠ Dīp XII 39; Mahākāḷa, Jinak 52,31; Mahāvācakāla,
Mp II 216,1 qu. Ss Ce 1914 105,35; Vāsettha, A III 451,
16; Visākha, Spk III 291,3; Vedeha, Th-a III 121,27;
Sambhava, Vv 999; Sāragga, A III 451,17; Sīlāleḍḍhu-
ka, Sās 154,32; Suppiya,Vin I 216,31; Soṇa Kuṭikaṇṇa,
I 194,20; Ud 57,5; — Kosambakehi ~ehi, Vin I 354,4;
Pāṭaligāmikā ~ā, I 227,6; D II 84,14; Ud 85,26;
Vesālikā ~ā, Vin II 298,14; — ifc. agga-°; añña-
tara-°; anāgāmi-°; ariya-sāvaka-° (Mp IV 114,12);
utthita-° (Sp 744,18 [read utthitā ~ā (?)]); ek° (M
1*491,4); gihi-° (Mil 397,11); chattapāṇi-° (Dhp-a
I 381,11); pañca-sata-° (°-parivāra, Spk III 291,6);
pāp° (Vin I 192,35); mahā-° (Ps I 147,27); Sāvatthi-
vāsi-° (Ja I 299,13, cf. Ja I 332,26); — 2. Abh-sn
Ce 1895 58,25, cf. iupāsati.