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upamā

, f. [ts.]; — in cpd.s upama-; — 1. simile;
example; ifc. often
= sama; see JPTS I 906 — 1907 p.
52 foll., 1908 p. 180 foll.; — 2. (rhet.) simile; the re-
semblance between the subject of comparison and the
comparison adduced
(Subodh, trsl. G. E. Fryer, JASB
44 p. 99); Sadd 508,28 — 509,6; 790,13; 884,1; Subodh
177; — 1. ~ā viññūhi desitā, Th 703; ~am dassento,
Ps I 166,9; tam eva ~āya dassento, Pj I 248,10;
catuhi ~āhi desanaṁ yeva thometi, Spk I 135,26
= Mp II 106,11; evam ādisu ~āyaṁ dissati, Pj I
100,4; °-vasena, Pj II 329,2; ~ā pi na sukarā,
A I 10,3; yassa n' atthi ~ā kvaci, Sn 1137 (= upa-
nidhā sadisaṁ paṭibhāgo, Nidd II); Ja III 373,18*;
Buddha-ñāṇaṁ upàdāya ~āto na yujjare, Ap 21,4
(so read with CeBe for Ee ~ā te; Ap-a 226,17 ~āto
°-vasena); idha ṭhatvā ~ā saṁsandetabbā, Sv 881,
21; Ja III 374,15'; ~ā ... asamvutaṁ ghara-
dvārâdivasena veditabbā, Mp I 54,21; ~āto imāni
dānâdīni puññāni veditabbā, IV 187,8; dvādasa
~ā veditabbā, Vism 663,11; saraṇattayaṁ etaṁ
ca ~āhi pakāsaye, Pj I 20,31; 212,27; Pj II 13,19;
472,9; Vism 591,28; Pv-a 29,12; devatāya ~ā tāva
daḷhaṁ katvā ānītā, Spk I 48,22; ~āyo ca kāraṇāni
ca āharitvā, Ps II 167,23 (cf. upameyya and kāraṇa);
Ja I 448,1; Pj II 330,19; ~aṁ āha, 13,19; atthaṁ
~āya vibhāvehi, 472,9; ~aṁ patikkhipitvā, Mp I
59,27; IV 84,11; Th-a III 11,28; Ja III 215,27; atitulo
ti tulaṁ atīto ~aṁ atīto nirupamo ti attho, Pj II
455,8; ~āto ti bhāro viya hi dukkhasaccaṁ daṭṭhab-
baṁ, Vibh-a 88,26 = Vism 512,4; anūnâdikato (Ñtl:
°âdhi°) c'eva ~āto tath' eva ca, Vism 476,26* (= ~āhi
upametabbato, mhṭ Be II 1960 162,25); Vism 582,27;
Saddh 29; āyu sukhaṁ . . . yesaṁ tesaṁ sukhaggassa
kā ettha ~ā siyā, 259; Abhidh-av 103,27; with karoti
'to make a simile; give an example': ~aṁ karissāmi,
~āya p' idh' ekacce viññū purisā bhāsitassa atthaṁ
ājānanti, D II 324,3 = M I 148,35 = S II 114,15;
~ā . . . katā atthassa viññāpanāya, V 170,17 = It
114,9; attānaṁ ~aṁ katvā, Dhp 129 = Sn 705; Pj II
304,11; 384,6; — for other exx. see PTC and Vism,
index p. 722; — 2. Subodh 187-96 (trsl. p. 99) distin-
guishes the following similes formed by words implying
a comparison:
(a) correct (dhammôpamā); (b) defective
(dhammahīna); (c) reversed (viparīta); (d) reciprocal
(aññamañña); (e) marvellous (abbhuta); (f) equivocal
(silesa); (g) spreading (santāna); (h) disparaging
(ninda); (i) prohibitive (paṭisedha); (/) uncommon
(asādhāraṇa); (k) false (abhūta); — in the following
similes, the idea of similarity is conveyed by a word's
meaning, without the employment of a compound. verbal
affix, or word implying comparison. They are:
(a) ob-
vious
(sarūpôpamā); (b) ideal (parikappa); (c) doubtful
(saṁsaya); (d) typically comparative (paṭivatthu); —
the following kinds of simile are sometimes deemed in-
congruous:
(a) comparison between objects of different
genders
(bhinnaliṅga) and of different numbers (vijāti-
vacana); (b) the defective simile (hīna); (c) the
exaggerated s.
(adhika); (d) the irrelevant s. (apuṭa-
attha); (e) the contingent s. (apekkhinī); (f) the imper-
fect s.
(khaṇḍila); — see also upameyya and kāraṇa;
ifc. (~[ā/a]) agad'-ū°; aggikkhandh'-ū°; aggi-
sikh'-ū
°; aṅgāra-kās'-ū° + S IV 189,4; A III 98,
29); acchar'-ū°; aṭṭhikaṅkal'-ū°; aṭṭhisaṅkhal'-ū°;
att'-ū°; anil'-ū°; an-[ū/u]°; ano°; andha-veṇ'-ū°;
amb'-ū°; aruk'-ū°; alagadd'-ū°; asappāya-se-
van'-ū
° (Vism 478,35); asisūn'-ū°; [asi-sūl'-ū°];
āsīvis'-ū°; āsīviso°; udak'-ū°; udadh'-ū°; kas-
sak'-ū
° (Pv I [I 1.1]); kāṇakacch(ap)o° (Mil 204,12;
Saddh 44); kiṁsuko° (Spk III 57,12); kumbh'-ū°
(Dhp 40); khett'-ū° (Pvl [11:1]); gagan'-ū° (Bv
III 2); gilāna-sār-ū° (Vism 478,30); gilān'-ū° (Vism
478,31); gelañña-samuṭṭhān'-ū° (Vism 478,33); ge-
laññ'-ū
° (Vism 478,32); cand'-ū° (Ud-a 63,4); ta-
ruṇ'-ū
° (M I 432,29); tiṇ'ukk'-ū° (A III 98,29);
tisattisatâhat'-ū° (Ps 1211,27); dāru-yant'-ū° (Vism
595,9); devakaññ'-ū° (Mhv XXIX 24); devasabho°
(Mhv III 19); dharaṇ'-ū° (Ja VI 526,13*; Bv III 2);
dhen'-ū° (Pv-a 112,6); nagar'-ū° (Dhp 40); nic-
camma-gāv'-ū
° (Ps 1211,22; Vism 341,17); nir°-
(Pj II 455,8); putta-mams'-ū° (Ps I 211,20); bīj'-ū°
(Mil 209,25); mamsa-pes'-ū° (Vin IV 134,21; A III
95,28); Merū° (Bv III 2); yācitak'-ū° (Vin IV 134,
24; A III 98,31); rukkha-phal'-ū° (Vin IV 134,25;
A III 98,31); vaccha-tarun'-ū° (Mil 209,25); satti-
sūl'-ū
° (Vin IV 134,27; A'ill 99,1); sappa-sir'-ū°
(Vin IV 134,27; A III 99,2); sāgar'-ū° (Bv III 2;
Mhv XV 175); sunakho° (Mhv XXXVI 44); supi-
nak'-ū
° (Vin IV 134,24; A III 98,30); sel'-ū° (Th 191).