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upa-kkilesa

, m. [BHS upakleśa; see BHSD],
"anything that spoils or obstructs" (PED); stain,
impurity, defect, blemish, defilement; obstruction

(Vism trsl. Ñm: imperfection, Maung Tin: corrup-
tion); mostly of mind (cittassa, cetaso), character,
behaviour, but
(in similes) also in material sense
("obstruction" of sun, moon; "impurities" of gold);
not a definite technical term but used for a great many
and very diverse moral, mental and material qualities
and objects, and appearing in numerous different
groups or lists of 2 to 18 items;
(qualification as
"minor" stains etc.
[PED], "minor, secondary" im-
purities etc.
[BHSD s. v. upakleśa], "auxiliary or
subsidiary corruption
(no doubt with the connotation
that it may lead to worse
)" [T. W. RhD., SBB IV
39 n. 1], based on attempted distinction from kilesa
and diminutive sense of upa [see upa 1.] seems to be
unsupported by textual evidence
); — paripuṇṇāya pi
. . . tapo-jigucchāya aneka-vihite ~e vadāmi . . .
ayaṁ pi kho tapassino ~o hoti, D III 42,21 — 45,21
(verbal descriptions of 16 ~); abhijjhā-visama-
lobho cittassa ~o, vyāpādo cittassa ~o, kodho c.
~o, upānaho . . . mado . . . pamādo c. ~o (16 ~),
M I 36,28 foll.; lobho cittassa ~o, doso cittassa ~o,
moho c. ~o, 91,8; cittaṁ āgantukehi ~ehi upakkili-
ṭṭhaṁ, A I 10,6 (= rāgâdīhi, Mp I 60,18); rāgo cit-
tassa ~o, Nidd II 110,2; (Anuruddhaṁ) dibba-
cakkhussa parikammaṁ ānisaṁsaṁ ~aṁ pucchis-
sāma, Spk II 140,16; sabbe pi dussīlya-hetu-bhūte
kodh'upanahadike ~e pajahati, Cp-a 312,25; attano
~esu . . . paṭiharitesu ... (in etym. epex. of pāṭi-
hāriya), Ud-a 10,19; — in old texts frequently juxta-
posed and identified with the "five obstacles":
pahāya
pañcâvaraṇāni cetaso ~e vyapanujja sabbe, Sn 66
= Ap 11,32 (Ap-a 193,18: upagamma [so read with
BeCe for Ee
upakkama] cittaṁ vibādhente akusala-
kamme); so ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso ~e
paññāya dubbalī-karaṇe . . . , D III 49,24 = 101,12
= S V 108,19 = A III 386,3 = V 195,13 = Vibh
245,4 (Vibh-a 371,5) = Pp 59,26 = Nett 94,11;
abhijjhā-visama-lobho cittassa ~o . . . vyāpādo c.
~o . . . thīna-middhaṁ . . . uddhacca-kukkuccaṁ . . .
vicikicchā c. ~o, A II 67,10-20; cittassa ~ā ti pañca
nīvaraṇā, Mp II 322,15 ad A I 207,9 — 211,15 ye
cittassa ~ā, te pahīyanti; — pane' ime jātarūpassa ~ā,
yehi ~ehi upakkiliṭṭhaṁ jātarūpaṁ na e'eva mudu
hoti na kammaniyaṁ -f . . . : ayo, lohaṁ, tipu,
sīsaṁ, sajjhaṁ . . . , evam eva . . . pane' ime cittassa
~ā . . . kāmacchando, vyāpādo . . . vicikicchā,
A III 16,4 — 17,2 ≠ S V 92,2 — 93,4; — santi jātarū-
passa oḷārikā ~ā paṁsu-vālikā sakkhara-kaṭhalā . . .
majjhima-sahagatā ~ā sukhuma-sakkharā . . . sukhu-
ma-sahagatā ~ā sukhuma-vālikā . . . , evam eva . . .
santi adhicittam anuyuttassa bhikkhuno oḷārikā ~ā
kāya-duccaritaṁ vacī-d. mano-d., majjhima-saha-
gatā ~ā kāma-vitakko vyāpāda-vitakko vihiṁsā-
vitakko . . . sukhuma-s. ~ā jāti-vitakko +, A I 253,
17 — 254,23; cattāro . . . candima-suriyānaṁ ~ā yehi
~ehi upakkiliṭṭhā candima-suriyā na tapanti (: ab-
bhaṁ, mahiyā, dhūma-rajo, Rāhu), . . . evam
eva cattāro samaṇa-brāhmaṇānaṁ ~ā: ... suraṁ
pivanti . . . methunaṁ dhammaṁ paṭisevanti . . .
jātarūpa-rajataṁ sādiyanti . . . micchâjīvena jīvanti,
II 53,2 — 54,12 = Vin II 295,21 — 296,21; dasa lokā,
dasa ~ā, Nidd II 241,16; dasa vipassan'ū~ā . . . te
dasa ~ā: obhāso, ñāṇaṁ, pīti, passaddhi . . . nikanti
("imperfections of insight"), Vism 633,13; yo ...
cakkhusmim . . . sotasmiṁ . . . ghānasmiṁ . . .
manasmiṁ chanda-rāgo, cittass' eso ~o . . . bhik-
khuno imesu chasu ṭhānesu cetaso ~o pahīno hoti...,
S III 232,4 (Spk II 347,8-18); dve dhammā cittassa
~ā: taṇhā ca avijjā ca, Nett 86,12; taṇhā-caritassa
and diṭṭhi-caritassa puggalassa ~ā, 114,27 — 115,28;
117,33 — 118,18; ~e pajahati vinodeti, Cp-a 312,25;
cf. also Peṭ 41,6; 159,13; 191,24; — group of eleven
~ā, M III 160,26 — 161,2 (≠ 162,1-11); of five, Paṭis
I 72,31; of four, 73,3-7; of different four, 73,10-14;
of eight, 73,17-21; of eighteen, 164,3; of six, 164,13-21;
ifc. an°, āgantuk°, vigat'ū° (A IV 177,10),
vipassan'ū° (Vism 633 — 638); — °-jaṭā, f., the
tangle of
(the vipassan')ūpakkilesā; sama-tiṁsa-
vidhaṁ ~aṁ vijaṭetvā, Vism 638,7; — °-vatthu, n.,
the basis of an upakkilesa; °tā, f. abstr.; obhāsâdayo
~āya ("because they are the basis for imperfection",
Ñm) upakkilesa ti vuttā, na akusalattā, Vism 637,
10 (mhṭ Be II 1960 432,27: nippariyāyato diṭṭhi-
māna-taṇhā idha upakkilesa, tesaṁ vatthutāya,
uppatti-ṭṭhānatāya) = Paṭis-a 591,19; — °-vi(nim)-
mutta
, mfn., free from blemishes or imperfections
(ñāṇa); free from obstructions (sun); maggo ti maggañ
ca amaggañ ca vavatthapeti: ~aṁ . . . vipassanā-
ñānaṁ, Vism 638,8; — ~e suriye, Ud-a 149,31 (cf.
A II 53,2 foll., above).