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1

iti

, ind. [ts.], 1. (rarely) adv.: thus, so; 2. a
particle used, with or without a verb meaning "to say,
think, feel, hear, perceive, know" etc. or equivalent
nominal expression, as a marker of direct speech

(quoting words or thoughts); to be translated "thus",
"so", often untranslatable or to be rendered by mere
quotation marks; sometimes causal:
("so thinking, argu-
ing thus" =
) "on this account, for this reason";
a. (rare) ~ + verb preceding the quotation; b. (nor-
mally
) ~ + verb following the quotation; c. quotation
between verb and
~ ; d. ~ without verb following the
quotation;
e. ~ after single words and names (with or
without
nāma, vissuta etc.), mostly to be rendered by
quotation marks;
f. ~ after an enumeration = "viz.",
"i. e.";
(combinations with other particles see at end of
article
); — forms: full form ~ generally used in poetry;
very frequent enclitic form
ti (q. v. separately) more
usual in prose; sandhi of
~ : a) ~ before vowels except
ī > ice (cf. Kacc 19; Mogg I 30; Sadd 616,24 foll.):
ice abravī (e. g. Sn 355, Mhv XV 182 f.), ice āha
(Ja IV 177,20*, Mhv V 109 etc.), ice upasaggena
(Sadd 702,24; 703,7,15), ice eva (see below); but also
iti'ssa Vin IV 149,10 (quoted Sadd 616,24 foll.),
it'ayam A IV 98,3* (= ~ ayaṁ, Mp IV 49,14);
itveva (= ~ eva) see s. v.; b) ~ + i- > itî-: itîdha
Mhv II 33 (frequent itīti, q. v. below, may be taken as
itîti, or rather, from pali standpoint, as itī ti with
normal vowel-lengthening before
ti, q. v.); c) ca + ~ >
c'iti (see below 1. ~ c' ~ ca; c'īti Ja III 124,4* w. r.,
Ce
c'iti), later (sanskritizingl ) ceti (Abhidh-s 1,9; 2,4;
3,9); ~ ha ~ ha > itihītiha, q. v.; d) -īti rather -ī ti
than -îti (cf. under b) above). — Abh 1158 (syn. ittham),
1188 (with differenciating meanings); Sadd 317,13
18,12; 616,24—17,17; 638,28—39,14; 681,15; 684,14-
33; 743,10-19; 896,11; Bālāv § 12, p. 27,25; itī ti pada-
sandhi pada-saṁsaggo pada-pāripūri akkhara-sama-
vāyo vyañjana-siliṭṭhatā padânupubbatā-m-ekam
itī ti, Nidd I 123,9 = 139,26 (iccā ti . . .), quoted Pj II
28,2 (itī ti evam āhā ti attho, Niddese pana itī ti . . .);
itī ti nidassane nipāto, Sv 1021,28 = Mp III 12,17;
itī ti vuttappakārena, It-a II 75,14; itī ti parisamatte
nipāto, Ap-a 206,20; cf. Franke, ZDMG 48,87; Geiger
§ 66,1; Pischel § 143; Kuiper, IIJ X 91—95. —
1. "~ nan" ti sīlesu akatthamāno, Sn 783; yo
bhikkhu samudācareyya: "~ jānāmi, ~ passāmī" ti,
Vin III 91,19 (Horner: "this I know, this I see");
dhammesu kareyya chandaṁ ~ modamāno sugatena,
Th 305; na ~ mam jano jānātū ti, A II 26,6; "...
passissāmī" ti sikkhati. ~ kāyânupassī viharati . . . ,
D II 292,1 = M I 56,27; . . . ti attho. ~ imasmiṁ
sutte . . . vacī-saccam eva kathitaṁ, Mp III 163,21;
imaṁ mayā ~ sandassitânisarhsaṁ sikkhāpadaṁ
evaṁ . . . uddisseyyātha . . . , Sp 226,23; . . . te honti
dvādas' ime pi ca / pubbe vuttā cha vādā ca ~
aṭṭhārasâkhilā / sattarasâpi dutiye jātā vassa-sate ~,
Mhv V 10/, — ~ c' ~ ca "this way and that, hither
and thither";
api nu so ~ c' ~ e'eva kāyaṁ sannā-
meyya, M I 507,9; ubhohi hatthehi ~ c' ~ ca sevāla-
paṇakaṁ apaviyūhitvā, A III 187,25; yañ c'etaṁ ~
c' ~ ca, Ja III 124,4* ≠ 217,24* (Ee w. r. c'iti ca;
ct. ito ca ito ca); — 2. a. etaṁ atthaṁ bhagavā
avoca, tatth' etaṁ ~ vuccati, standing phrase intro-
ducing stanzas of
It after introductory prose passages;
~ phandana-rukkho pi tāvade ajjhabhāsatha: ". . .",
Ja IV 210,19*; so ... ~ paṭisañcikkhati: ". . .", D I
63,2 (evaṁ paccavekkhati, Sv 180,12) = A II 208,22;
viñňū puriso ~ paṭisañcikkhati: ". . .", M I 520,8,24;
521,4; ~ paṭisañcikkhitabbaṁ: ". . .", Sp 425,9;
mahārājā . . . ~ cintayi: ". . .", Mhv VIII 1; —
b. Bhāradvājo ~ bhāsati, Sn 596; ~ bhāsasi, Gotama,
Th 825; ~ vuttaṁ mahesinā, Th 713; 900; rājā
". . ." ~ vatvā, Mhv XXXII 67; ~ vādiyanti, Sn
824; ~ maṁ vadeti, Ja IV 18,15* ≠ 19,5*; ~ āha
taṁ, Mhv VII 18; ~ gantvā Gāmanissa taṁ sāvayi,
XXIII 14; "adhammo" ~ pakkanduṁ, Sn 310; ~
tarn namassanti, It 123,9*; ~ pucchi mahīpati, Mhv
V 269; ~ bālo vicinteti, Dhp 62; ~ rājā vicinteti,
Mhv XVII 26; ~ cintayi, V 162; ~ bālo vihaññati,
Dhp 62; ~ me sutaṁ, Th 208; ~ no sutaṁ, Ja IV
233,17*; ~ ñatvā, Sn 61; ~ viññāya, Dhp 186; ~
vidvā, Ja IV 172,15*; ~ disvā(na) "thus considering",
i. e. "for that reason",
Sn 406; 805; Th 123; 1051; ~
pekkhamāno (= ~ disvāna), Th 1110; Ja III 396,3;
~passi ("perceived"), Mhv IV 28; ~ bālassa saṁkappo,
Dhp 74; vimuttasmiṁ (se. citte) "vimuttaṁ" ~
ñāṇam ahosi, M I 23,23 etc.; — ~ repeated after the
enclitic form
ti: "so tato cuto idh' uppanno" ti ~ . . .
pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi, Vin III 4,90 (itī ti evaṁ,
Sp 161,9) ≠ B 1 13,26; 81,23; "abrahmacariya-vāso
ayan" ti ~ viditvā, M I 515,33 foll. ≠ 519,32 foll.;
". . ." ti ~ vadaṁ, A II 176,29 ≠ 177,1,7,13; ". . ."
ti ~ puṭṭho, A V 193,22 foll.; "n'eso maman" ti ~
naṁ vijaññā, Sn 253; Ja passim ~ at beginning of
prose passage after concluding
ti of gāthā(s), e. g.
I 458,7; II 8,9; 14,21; 202,15. — — before the syn.
evaṁ: ". . ." ~ / evaṁ vuttesu, Mhv XXII 82; ~
so . . . Koravyaṁ evaṁ (Ce: eva) ghattesi, Ja VI
273,16; icc'evaṁ Spk I 9,23*; Mhv I 70; III 25; V
160, 273 etc.; Abhidh-s 1,22 — 4,15 ; 8,26; Sadd 294,25;
333,26; 360,9 etc. — c. rājârocesi therānaṁ: ". . ." ~,
Mhv III 23; apucchi dhammike bhikkh[ū/u]: "kiṁ-vādī
sugato?" ~, V 271; ārocesi kumārassa: ". . ." ~, X 54;
āha: ". . ." ~, XVII 3; — d. ~ + Npr. or other indi-
cation of speaker in prose parentheses inserted in dia-
logue stanzas,
Sn passim (e. g. ~ Dhaniyo gopo, ~
bhagavā, 18—29; ~ Māro pāpimā, 33 etc.); ~ Selo
brāhmaṇo, Th 825; — "rañño mukhamhi pātemi" ~
kaṇḍaṁ ca so khipi, Mhv XXV 89; '"na yujjhissāma
Damiḷehi' ~ bhuñjath' imaṁ", XXII 82; — ~ "with
this argument, for this reason"
: "ati-sītaṁ ati-uṇhaṁ
ati-sāyam idaṁ ahū" ~ vissaṭṭha-kammante khaṇā
accenti māṇave, Th 231 (but Th-a II 92,2 iminā
pakārena) ≠ D III 185,11* (Ee w. r. ahu, kammanto);
"janittaṁ me, bhavittaṁ me" ~ paṅke avassayiṁ
(ct. ~ . . . ti iminā kāraṇena), Ja II 80,15*;
". . . medhāvī paṇḍito c'eva", ~ no sammato bhavaṁ,
III 500,5*; Mahānandanavanaṁ vuccate "tena
tādinā sāsana-jotita-ṭṭhānaṁ" ~ "Jotivanaṁ" ~,
Mhv XV 202; — e!'hoti saddo "ratho" ~, S I
135,20*; sambuddhaṁ ~ vissutam, Sn 597; yakkho
. . . Ratt'akkhi ~ vissuto, Mhv XXXVI 82; Anūna-
nāmo ~ m'avhayanti, Ja VI 273,30*; Dhataraṭṭho ~
nāma so, D III 197,6*; Nigrodhakappo ~ tassa
nāmaṁ, Th 1264 = Sn 344; . . . etaṁ dīpaṁ anā-
paraṁ, nibbānaṁ ~ naṁ brūmi, Sn 1094; nibbānaṁ
~ vuccati, 1108 f.; maggo so pāraṁ-gamanāya, tasmā
pārāyanaṁ ~, 1130; ten' etaṁ ~ (se. pārājikan ti,
saṁghâdiseso ti, etc.) vuccati, Vin V 148,16* etc.; —
in glosses of ct.s: su ~ nipāto, Sp 482,8; saṁ ~ ayam
upasaggo, Mhv-ṭ 19,3,15; hi ~ ayaṁ saddo karan'at-
tho, 109,7; ā ~ kim-atthaṁ? ,Kacc-v 60; — f. vuttâbhi-
dhamm'attha catudhā: cittaṁ, cetasikaṁ, rūpaṁ,
nibbānam ~, Abhidh-s 1,7*; — — ~ combined with
other emphatic particles: a) ice eva, Sn 241; Pv 80
(= evam eva, Pv-a 59,24); Ja IV 211,2*; 406,4* (ct.
iminā kāraṇena); Itivuttakaṁ ice eva nāmena, It-a
I 1,19*; b) ~ kira "thus now, so then", D I 228,26;
229,13; 238,27; 240,23; A I 115,7; Sp 414,7,13; c) ~
kho (followed by voc.) "thus, so then, therefore", D I
98,7; 99,3; 103,11; 105,17; III 119,14 foll.; S II 26,4
(= evaṁ kho, Spk II 41,1); A I 101,18; II 25,12,21
(= evaṁ kho, Mp III 40,6); d) ~ pi (~ pi — ~ pi);
. . . antara-kathā udapādi: "~ pi brāhmaṇa-saccāni
~ pi brāhmaṇa-saccāni", A II 176,16,24; etaṁ vuccati
jāti-vādo ~ pi gotta-vādo ~ pi māna-vādo ~ pi:
"arahasi vā maṁ tvam . . .", D III 99,23; ~ p'etaṁ
abhūtaṁ, ~ p'etaṁ atacchaṁ, "for this or that reason
this is not the fact, that is not so",
I 2,15 ≠ 28 (taṁ
iminā pi kāraṇena abhūtam, iminā pi kāraṇena
atacchaṁ, Sv 53,5); . . . kitti-saddo abbhuggato:
"~ pi so bhagavā: arahaṁ sammā-sambuddho . . ."
("for the following reasons, too, he is a bhagavā:
because he is arahaṁ . . ."), Vin III 1,13 = D I 49,27
= M II 133,22 = S I 219,31 = A III 312,8, quoted
Vism 198,4 and Mhv-ṭ 26,11 (Sp 112,4 = Sv 146,5
Vism 198,8: so bhagavā ~ pi arahaṁ ~ pi sammā-
sambuddho . . . iminā ca iminā ca kāraṇenā ti vuttaṁ
hoti); e) ~ vā hi — ~ vā hi, "thus for instance . . . or
thus for instance",
D I 4,3—12,12; f) ~ ssu, so then;
Th 86 (Th-a I 194,2), 1113—1120, 1124 (= evaṁ
hi, Th-a III 155,13); gr) ~ ha thus now, so then; ~
ha tattha sampajāno hoti, M III 112,7 foll. = A IV
47,13 foll. = 167,5,13 (Mp IV 74,9 = evaṁ) = Ps I
278,21; ~ ha bhagavato paṭisañcikkhato . . . cittaṁ
namati, Vin I 5,12 = D II 36,19 = M I 168,9; —
Vin I 12,11 = III 19,4 = S V 424,3; D I 1,15; 91,8
foll.; II 289,1; M I 32,33 = 151,4 (Ps I 153,7 =
evaṁ) = S II 277,5 (w. r. ~ h'ete for ~ ha te) =
Mil 89,15; M I 372,34; — ~ ha ~ hā ti expl. itihītiha
(q. v.), Spk I 221,6; ~ ha āsa ~ ha āsa expl. itihāsa
(q. v.), Sv 247,28; Ps III 362,16; Mp II 261,24; Pj II
447,19; Ja I 451,6'; Ap-a 219,27 (Ee twice itīha āsa);
Bv-a 68,26 (Ee only ~ ha āsa); h) ~ hi (only ~ h'idaṁ
and ~ h'etaṁ; h virtually used as sandhi-cons.; cf.
Geiger § 73,7); ~ hiidaṁ vuttaṁ, Vism 1,7 (quoted
Sadd 907,19; ib. 17: ~ hī ti evam evā ti nicchaya-
karan'atthe); ~ h'idaṁ "thus now, so then" (mostly
introducing final resume or concluding paragraph of

sutta or ct.), D III 116,8; M I 331,31; 501,4; 524,8;
II 39,27; S II 7,5; 9,7; 10,21; 11,7; Mil 325,31; — ~
h'etaṁ vijānāma, Sn 93—113 (yathā vutto bhaga-
vatā, tath'eva etaṁ vijānāma, Pj II 168,18); ~
h'etaṁ namassanti, It 76,9* = 123,17* (hi ti nipāta-
mattaṁ, It-a II 75,15); ~ h'etaṁ chaḍḍeyyātha
("therefore you should reject it"), D II 124,13.