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1

ākāsa

, m. n. [sa. ākāśa, m. n.], 1. (a) the firma-
ment, sky, heavens, air, space, upper regions;
(b) ether,
'the fifth element'
(for its relation to the 4 'mahābhuta'
see Stcherbatsky, Erkenntnistheorie und Logik p. 76
foll. with ref.). For synonyms see Abh 45, 46; Sadd
442,11-14; further s. v. antalikkha, ambara, ~-gata,
~-gabbha, ~-dhātu with same meaning. Cf. Abhidh-s
trsl. 226. — (a) nom. sg. ~o: Sn 1065 = Nidd II
101,6 ~o va avyāpajjamāno; M I 424,23 ~o na katthi
patiṭṭhito; Kv 330,10 ~o sanidassano; Saddh 464 ~o
c' eva viññāṇaṁ; Abhidh-av 64,16* ~o c' eva rūpassa;
Jina-c 224 foll. anokāso si ~o; ~aṁ: Mp II 186,3;
Dhp-a III 218,17 ~am eva kira nesaṁ chadanaṁ
ahosi; Ps III 395,18 bhoto appameyyaguṇā ~am iva
vitthatā ti; acc sg. ~aṁ: Pj II 110,20 ~aṁ vā aṅgu-
liyā niddisantena; Ja II 176,12 ≠ Dhp-a I 164,14
~aṁ pakkhandi(ṁsu); Th-a I 70,11 ~aṁ abbhug-
gantvā; Spk III 6,14 ~aṁ vitthārento; Mil 328,4 ~aṁ
passati; see 2ākāsa; instr, sg. ~ena: Ja II 103,22 ~ena
caritukāmo; ~ena Nāgadīpe attano bhavanaṁ
pāvisi, ib. III 188,5; ~ena netvā, Dhp-a I 164,16;
~ena gacchanto (going through the air), ib. 164,9;
Sp (II) 323,17; Pv-a 103,30; 105,22; 162,17; ~en'
āgantvā, ib. 75,32; ~ena āgatā, Mhv-ṭ (II) 331,24 ad
Mhv XIV 15 d = nabhasâgamam; ~ena vicarati,
Th-a II 1,8; ~ā: Samantak 271 c so gā 'kāsā sam-
paditto; gen. sg. ~assa: Mil 387,18 ~assa pañca
aṅgāni; abl. sg. ~ā: Spk I 42,1 ~ā oruyha; Ja I 254,9
~ā ratanāni patiṁsu; ~ato: Spk I 65,25 ~ato ota-
ritvā — Th-a I 20,26; Sp (V) 1111,13 ~ato otiṇṇa-
sadisaṁ; Th-a I 188,26 ~ato oruyha; Samantak
409 ~ato 'ruyha; Mp III 368,22 ~ato patamānaṁ;
" Ja I 253,7 ~ato sattaratanavassaṁ vassati; loc
sg.
~e: M I 127,32 ~e rūpāni likhissāmi; Dhp
92 (93) ~e va sakuntānaṁ gati (padaṁ); ~e
yanti iddhiyā, ib. 175; ~e va padaṁ n' atthi, ib.
254, 255; Sp (II) 323,6 moro ~e yeva pakkhe cāreti;
Ps V 6,5 ~e padaṁ kataṁ; Spk III 210,8 apade ~e
padadassanaṁ viya; Mp II 186,3 ~e patiṭṭhito; ib.
IV 155,3 ~e udakaṁ bhassati; Th-a I 91,20 ~e
khipanto; ib. II 56,23 ~e dhārento; Pv-a 65,20 ~e
gacchantassa candassa; Dhp-a III 79,5 ~e nisīditvā
parinibbāyanti; Ja I 168,2 ~e pallaṅkena nisīditvā;
ib. 253,7 ~e ulloki; ib. 446,6; II 38,12; 103,8, 17 ~e
uppatitvā; 353,22 ~e uppati; VI 397,27 ~e gaṇṭhiṁ
kātuṁ samatthā; Mhv XXIV 30 pattaṁ pūretvā ~e
khipi; Saddh 42 ~e ṭhānaṁ; Rūp 113,20 ~e sakuṇā
caranti; Samantak 333 parivattesi ~e; ~amhi: Th
1155 ~amhi haliddiyā yo maññetha rajetave, vide also
Ce
(but Th-a III 168,9 reads ~aṁ hi); Ap (I) 112,16
~amhi samokiriṁ; Vv 31 ~amhi samīhati (Vv-a
35,15-17); Mhv V 220 ~amhi nisīditvā; XXXV 97
~amhi ṭhito; ~asmiṁ: Vism (I) 175,7 ~asmiṁ nimi-
ttaṁ gaṇhāti; in cpd. (tejādhikānaṁ . . .) ākāsânila-
toyubbi-adhikānantisesakā,Abhidh-av 67,21*;—Defi-
nitions
: ~o ti nabhaṁ, taṁ hi na kassatî ti ākāso, kasi-
tuṁ vilekhituṁ na sakko tiattho (ākāsa ts the sky; it is
ā° because one cannot plough the same, it is ā° because
it cannot be ploughed or scratched
), Sadd 442,9-10; na
kassati na nikassati kasituṁ chindituṁ vā na sakkā
ti ~o (it is ā° because it is not ploughed, not dragged,
it is not possible to plough it or break it
), Paṭis-a
80,6-7; appaṭighaṭṭhena na kassatî ti ~o (tt ts ā°
because it is not scratched as it does not form an ob-
stacle
), Vibh-a 72,2. — The threefold ā° see Kv-a 92,17
foll. The five qualities of ā° (~assa pañca aṅgāni),
Mil 387,18—388,18. — In combination with antalikkha:
~e antalikkhe caṅkamati pi tiṭṭhati pi, Vin I 180,26;
IV 54,22 (Sp 802,1); ~e antalikkhe pallaṅkena nisīditvā,
Ud 93,1 (Ud-a 200,12; cf. Sp 802,1 and Vism 331,14); ~e
antalikkhe gaganapathe gacchati, Nidd II 34,33 (Nidd-a
II 45,15-16); ~am sakalantalikkhaṁ . . . minituṁ,
Ap-a 226,11. — ā° ts endless: ananto ~o; D I 34,35;
183,26; II 112,6; III 224,12;M III 27,9;43,21;S V 119,31;
A II 184,23; IV 40,12; 401,20; 410,14; V 345,28;
Paṭis II 39,30 (Paṭis-a 557,18); Vibh 262,5-9; Vism
(I)327,2].; 331,13-17; ~o 'yam ananto ti evaṁ
anantako ca ~o, Ap (I) 46,24 (= pariyosānarahito,
Ap-a 290,35); ~o iti vā 'nanto, Abhidh-av 100,21*; it is
great:
~o mahanto, Mp II 14,2; quoting Mil 239,21;
mahantena ~ena bahimukhā suṭṭhutaraṁ rūpaṁ
passāma, Mil 55,28, 30, 32 ≠ 86,27, 30. — ā° ts space
untouched:
~o apuṭṭhokāso (v. l. -ākāso), Ap-a
290,35. — The sky cannot be rolled up: saṁvatteyya
~o kilañjam (q. v.) iva, Mil 287,20. — ā° ts formless
and cannot be characterized:
ayaṁ hi ~o arūpī anidas-
sano, M I 127,36. — ā° and nibbāna possess the same
qualities:
~o akammajo ahetujo anutujo, nibbānaṁ
akammajaṁ ahetujaṁ anutujaṁ, Mil 268,14. — ā°
ts unconditioned (as nibbāna): ~o asaṁkhato, Kv
(II) 328,24 foll. (trsl. p. 192). — apade ~e padadas-
sanaṁ viya (like showing a foot-print in the sky where
there is no foot-hold
), Spk III 210,8; asajjamāno
gacchati seyyathā pi ~e (goes unobstructed as in the
sky
), M II 18,32 = S V 264,32; ~e vividhā vātā
vāyanti (diverse winds blow in the sky), S V 49,15;
~e pāṇippasāraṇa-kappā esanā (desires like stretching
the hand in the sky
), Pj II 152,27; — '~e vāyamantassā'
(Vin III 113,10) ti kenaci rūpena aghaṭetvā ~e
yeva kaṭikampanapayogena aṅgajātaṁ cālentassa,
Sp (III) 523,17 (Se II 9,15); catusu paccayesu
alaggattā '~e pāṇisamena cetasā' (Sp 491,24) ti
vuttaṁ, Sp-ṭ C* 627,20 (Be II 265,19); '~ena āgantvā
nisīdî' (Sp 13,2) ti . . . kadāci paṭhaviyaṁ nim-
mujjitvā āgatattā taṁ gahetvā eke vadanti, kadāci
~ena āgatattā taṁ gahetvā eke vadanti, Sp-ṭ Ce 50,30
foll. (Be I 56,17 foll.); '~ato patita-udaken' evâ' (Sp
721,26) ti vacanato chadanakoṭiyā patita-udakena,
Sp-ṭ Ce 771,22-23; — veḷuparamparāya saṭṭḥihattha-
matte ~e olambetvā, Dhp-a III 200,8; sarade ~o
(autumnal sky), Ja VI 126,28*. — (b) ~aṁ indriyāni
saṅkamanti (the sense faculties go forth into the ether),
M I 515,13 = S III 207,4. — Ifc. v. ajatâ° (Spk I
213,5; III 69,8; 70,10; As 346,22; Nidd-a II 45,15;
Bv-a 102,8; Kv-a 92,18); kaṇṇacchiddâ° (Spk III
70,9; As 314,20), kasiṇugghāṭimâ° (Abhidh-av 5,9;
101,1*; 102,10*; Nāmar-p 398; Vism 327,31; Vism-mht
Se II 160,7; Nidd-a II 64,28; Abhidh-s-mhṭ Se 89,10;
Paṭis-a 129,3; 557,21; Kv-a 92,18; As 186,21; 204,22
210,35; 346,21; cf. paritta- ib. 205,3, vipula- ib. 205,5),
jaladâ° (Ap 468,8), thalajalâ° (Ps III 434,22), tuc-
châ
° (Kv-a 92,18; Nidd-a II 45,16), nissaṭâ° (As
326,5), paricchinnâ° (Ps II 101,2), paricchedâ°
(Kv-a 92,19; Sv 594,18; As 186,23, 27; Paṭis-a 80,13),
sambuddhasāsanâ° (Mhv V 211), sunīlâ° (Saman-
tak 390). — — 2. n., a game (like European blind
chess), ~e pi kīlanti, Vin II 10,17; III 180,22 (Ct.
aṭṭhapada-dasapadesu viya ~e yeva kīḷanti, Sp
620,31—621,1) = D I 6,24 (Sv 85,19 ≠ Sp); ṭīkā on
Sp 620,31 foll.: ~e yeva kīḷantî ti ayaṁ sārī asuka-
padaṁ mayā nītā, ayaṁ asukapadan ti kevalaṁ
mukhen' eva vadantā ~e yeva jūtaṁ kīlanti, Ce
712,14 foll.